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THE IDEA OF BROTHERLY LOVE

AND THE PRINCIPLES

OF FREEMASONRY *



We all want and desire recognition of some kind, whether or not we are willing to admit it. This desire may drive us to behave honourably, like relieving the wants and necessities of our Brethren, such as in teaching, doctoring, ministering, social work, nursing, parenting, and any other vocation and avocation you may care to name. This same desire for recognition may also drive us to act less than honourably, compelling us to feel jealous or envious, thus leading us to attempt to destroy the good name and reputation of another by telling less than the truth, or by gossiping so as to spread thereby malicious and unfounded rumours, or by physically injuring others by applying physical punishment when they do not give us what we want.



The desire for recognition goes by many names. Call it love, caring, being cared for, affection, attention, competitiveness, ambition. We all need recognition in some form or other, indeed some of us crave it. The desire for recognition is greater in some than others, and for each the desire is greater at some times than at other times in our lives. Yet, it's always there, operating in the deepest and most secret recesses of our personality.



I can suggest ample evidence of this fact. Take Professor Bowlby's studies of orphans. These children, despite good medical care and feeding, without a loving surrogate parent to play with them and cuddle them, could not grow up to be normal, healthy children. Also, consider what is sometimes conceived to be the cruelest and ultimate punishment, namely, rejection, the withdrawal of affection and love, giving someone the cold shoulder, isolating them from other human contact, like solitary confinement in prison. Refusing to speak to someone else, to look at them, to shake hands with them, refusing in any civilized fashion to acknowledge their presence or existence is an attempt to control others through their need for recognition. The ancient Egyptians would remove the names of outcasts from all records, so that there would be no trace or memory of them; so too this practice is continued by the Soviets. Of course, the ultimate acts of rejection are suicide and murder.



Total non-recognition, of course, is the cruelest form of punishment that has ever been devised by the human mind and one to be used sparingly and only as a last resort, if at all. This form of punishment can do untold damage to the psychic fabric of the human personality, damage that is often irreversible, and if employed too widely forms the basis of prejudice and intolerance to an extent that can be disruptive of peace, good order and harmony. It is certainly contrary to the spirit of contemporary Masonry.

Here are some important questions to ask oneself, questions to reflect upon. How do you seek your recognition? How do you give recognition to others? When? How much? For what? Do you go about getting recognition and giving it in constructive or destructive ways? Do you have to please everyone to get recognition, love, attention? Does everyone have to please you before you acknowledge their worth? What is important to you? What does it take before Brotherly Love and Masonic Principles you acknowledge the presence or worth of a Brother? Whom do you associate with? What kind of recognition do they give you? Please remember that attention, love, affection, recognition can be used to manipulate and exploit people. It can be sincere or it can degenerate into exploitive flattery. Also, be aware of the danger of becoming enslaved to your own craving for recognition.



We can never, it seems to me, eliminate our desire for recognition and remain whole and healthy. Of course, we can also have an unhealthy desire for recognition, too much or too little, or a desire for inappropriate forms of recognition, or an inappropriate desire for recognition. An unhealthy expression of this urge would signal a neurosis of some kind. In such cases the personality is in need of healing, or therapy, or enlightenment.



Masonry is very instructive on the subject of recognition. We are taught what kind of recognition is worth seeking and giving. We are admonished to reward merit, not a person's rank or wealth. There are those who mistakenly think that you are always doing the Masonic thing by being nice to people no matter how they behave, that you must indulge them and give them the recognition they crave. This is a grievous error and a profound misunderstanding of Masonic teaching and the principles of contemporary psychology. This is simply encouraging egotism of the worst kind.



One other desire common to all mankind is the desire for freedom of movement. The desire for progress, growth, and prosperity is endemic in us all. But Masonry teaches us to seek this progress by honest labour and right action. The Charter of Rights properly understood and applied is an acknowledgement of this universal characteristic of human nature, that we are compelled by our nature to desire freedom of movement, to desire to grow and prosper. Unreasonably and unjustly to withhold the opportunity for freedom of movement, to unreasonably restrict an individual's desire for social advancement, personal growth and economic prosperity, is offensive to enlightened human sensibility. This inner drive can be used, of course, to threaten people and to get them to conform in their attitudes and behaviour to our will. We resort to controling individuals through this desire for freedom of movement when we threaten to punish an individual by imprisonment, or threaten to confine them to their room, or threaten to take away the car or threaten to refuse them a visa to travel. In school, we may threaten to fail them. In Masonry we may threaten not to "pass" or "raise" them.



Masonic ritual constantly recognizes this human aspiration for freedom of movement by emphasizing the fact that Masonry is a "progressive" science. Masonry also recognizes the importance of this principle of human motivation by enshrining among its landmarks the right of visitation. We also speak of progressing through the Chairs to the East. The birthright of all Masons is opportunity to receive enlightenment and subsequently wisdom, a fact acknowledged by ancient Freemasonry in its symbolism of assisting the soul in its travel towards the East.



We are constantly on the move, physically and mentally. We seem to prefer in that movement to move to greater light, wealth, knowledge, well-being, understanding, peace. But the desire for freedom of movement may be distorted and become a desire for privilege, for freedom without responsibility, progress without merit, profit without labour. In its most evil expression, we desire liberty without the supremacy of law. This, of course, is anarchy. And we see plenty of evidence of it in the world today. The exaggerated and distorted craving for freedom of movement shows itself as willfulness without due regard or respect for the good of others.



By conscientious planning an effective leader can provide for this great human desire and through tolerance and patience assist others to achieve the lofty ideals to which all good men aspire: brotherly love, relief and truth.

_________

*Remarks addressed at an Emergent Meeting of University Lodge A.F.& A.M., No. 496 G.R.C. February 1988. cp_002.88

THE MASON AS CRAFTSMAN *



Consider the possibility that we are what we believe, that our thoughts shape our destiny, that our actions reflect our consciousness. If we attend to its ritual and teachings, Masonry, in its most profound sense, impinges deeply upon the Mason's beliefs, his thinking, his consciousness, moving him from darkness to light, from self-serving to serving something other than himself, thereby freeing him from his lower self so he may give expression to his higher and nobler self.



The Entered Apprentice is told that he is raising a superstructure, perfect in its parts and honourable to the builder. Imagine that the superstructure being built is a good life, one that is wholesome and honourable to the builder. In a less obvious sense, however, the superstructure being raised is in reality the Mason's own consciousness.



Masonic ritual continually urges its Brethren to get the knowledge they need to accomplish the task of living a good life. Masons are counselled to study, to work, to serve. Prayer, labour, refreshment and sleep are to be one's constant occupations if one would seriously become a builder. Masonry means other things to some people. For some, Masonry may be simply a vehicle for self-aggrandizement and personal gratification. Whatever one's motives for membership in the Order, the reality is far more.



The "work" urges the Mason to raise his sights, to correct his thinking where necessary, to get accurate knowledge, not knowledge that consists simply of opinion or knowledge that is self-justifying; not knowledge that comes from rumour, gossip and hearsay, but accurate and true knowledge, knowledge that comes from disciplined observation, reason, and honest reflection. Moreover, he is admonished always to put his knowledge to the test by applying it in all his undertakings and to persevere in that process. Finally, he are reminded that in all his getting to strive for wisdom, the greatest of all human aspirations and possessions.



One of the landmarks of the Order is the idea of craftmanship. This is what makes Masonry unique among all orders and societies. Craftsmen were and still are the builders, the shapers of civilization.  The mark of a civilized man is that he is a craftsman, that he has acquired some skill, some discipline which he can apply to cultivating a nobler self and a better society for all.



When an Entered Apprentice is made a Fellowcraft, he is being advanced not only in his Masonic standing, but in his Masonic knowledge. Somehow, through the practice of the ancient ritual, ideas are portrayed which are supposed to have the power to reach deep within the personality, fire the imagination and enkindle in the soul the desire to advance in consciousness, in inner awareness and enlightenment.



_________

*Remarks addressed at an Emergent Meeting of University Lodge A.F.& A.M., No. 496 G.R.C. February 1988.

































cp_001.88

THE IDEALS OF MASONRY *



Masonry may be characterized as a Universal science and art - universal in the sense that it cuts across all cultures, all races, religions and creeds. It is a science because it respects rational thought; an art because its principles must be applied by each person to his unique circumstances in life.



The fundamental principle of all Masonic ideals is belief in the existence of a Creator. This is an important principle and not one accepted by all peoples on earth. Some members of the United Nations, for example, when drafting its Charter, opposed enshrining this belief as a fundamental principle of the Charter. No reference to the existence of a Creator was to be incorporated into the UN Charter. In fact there are countries in the world today, like Albania, where Masons espousing this ideal would not be welcome, where it is against the law to believe in a Divine Creator. We, as Masons, use many names to refer to this principle of a Divine Creator, metaphors like the Great Architect of the Universe, the Grand Geometrician of the Universe, the Most High, Almighty Father, the Supreme Governor of the Universe.



As Masons we also believe that our Creator has made known to us its will by making known to us whatever we need to know in order to live the good life. These principles of the good life are available to everyone and are laid out in sacred writings which we in Masonry call the Volume of Sacred Law and for which different religious groups have different names, like the Bible or the Koran, etc. The highest ideal of Masonry is to try to live according to the wisdom revealed to us in these sacred writings.



Among these principles are a respect for legitimate authority, a respect for all life, a respect for knowledge and the search for truth, a respect for freedom of conscience. A person, for example, must not join us out of pressure from friends or business associates, or for business advantages or any other material advantages.



As Masons we also champion respect for the family. We read so often today about the abuse of children and women. Such conduct is thoroughly repugnant to the ideals of Masonry. Any neglect of familial duties where the family seriously suffers as a result of such neglect is contrary to Masonic teaching. Another important principle of Masonry is respect for labor. Without work, without conscientious effort, any skill or talent we may have is of little value. It's what we can put to work in our lives that we respect.



The true Mason also holds in high regard the ideal of charity, kindness, consideration of others. The practice of charity is a distinctively Masonic ideal. This entails a respect for those less fortunate than we - the poor, the infirm, the elderly, the helpless, the destitute, the children.



The true objects of Masonic work in Lodge are to cultivate poise in our members, to develop the skills of responsible leadership and to inspire in its members an inclination to be of service to others. We try to encourage our young members to learn the skills of management in all areas of life, in lodge management and in their personal affairs, and to apply their skills and talents to the service of others. Management means order and harmony, virtues highly esteemed by Masons.



The ideals of Masonry may best be summed up as kindness and love, relief and charity, order and harmony, honesty and truth.

_________

Family Night, November 26, 1987, University Lodge A.F.& A.M., No. 496

G.R.C. cp_003.88

Attendance and Membership

Principles of Lodge Management *



In 1948, almost 40 years ago, Grand Lodge, under the leadership of M.W.

Bro. J.P. Maher, issued a pamphlet entitled "For the Use of the Master of the Lodge." At that time Grand Lodge was seriously concerned about attendance at the regular monthly meetings of most Lodges.  War veterans had joined Masonic Lodges in unprecedented numbers, but evidently without any appreciable increase in regular Lodge attendance.  You would think the regular attendance of members would have increased with such a large influx of members.  Not so.  Note that the issue is not the number of Brethren in Lodge, but the regular attendance of the members of Lodge.



Grand Lodge studied the situation and concluded two things may have happened. First, the initial enthusiasm of newly-admitted members may have waned. Second, the drop in regular attendance may have been a reaction to the dullness and monotony of so many badly planned meetings. 



Further, Grand Lodge identified the failure of the Lodge to plan its program sufficiently in advance as the foremost reason for poor Lodge meetings. Also, the W.M. and Officers of the Lodge could be faulted for lack of proper organization in the conduct of the social hour.  They cited unnecessary delays and too many speeches which are too often inappropriate and poorly prepared. 



Also blamed for poor attendance were unnecessarily long Lodge meetings, which dragged on unnecessarily, resulting in Brethren not getting home at a reasonable hour.  Time is often lost in prolonged and unnecessary discussion of items of business, items often of little or no interest to members or items dealing with details better ironed out by the Master andis Officers before the meeting.

Another turn-off identified in this study is the failure to give as many members as possible, especially new ones, an opportunity to do some floor work or to serve on committees.  An involved member is more likely to be an interested member. Hopefully, the Mentors Programme properly understood and effectively executed can assist in resolving some of these problems. 

The report further suggests that no evening meeting last beyond 10:30.  The W.M. is urged to: open Lodge promptly; organize meetings well in advance so as not to lose time in discussing business; avoid taking too much time reading the minutes; limit the reading of applications for membership to giving the name and two sponsors of the applicant; curb unnecessary discussion of details of business; move and second motions promptly; put the motion to the vote if no one rises within a short interval after calling for discussion (a few words of explanation by the W.M. may occasionally be required, but avoid long explanations on every item of business); prepare for balloting before the meeting begins.



Conduct degree work with a lively pace, but the degree should not be hurried lest the candidate fail to appreciate and understand what he is receiving. While some Brethren may be critical about ritual that is delivered less than word perfect, remember it is the sincerity and meaning behind the delivery that will impress the candidate.



Time can be saved by knowing your floor work.  Work should be alloted well in advance.  The Deacons should know what to do and do it.  Rehearsals should be held as frequently as necessary.  Avoid conferring more than one degree at each regular meeting if it is going to unnecessarily prolong the evening. Time is often lost in calling on many visitors and members for contributions to "the good of the Craft". Do not let the







meeting drag and be spoiled with unnecessary speeches. "Call off" the Lodge only when absolutely necessary. 

Use the period immediately following the meeting to socialize.  Organize the social hour well without unnecessarily prolonging it by many speeches, but give the speaker enough time to develop his message.  Strictly limit the time spent giving toasts. 



In the conduct of the social hour in the banquet room, for example, two minutes should enough to propose a toast, certainly no longer than three minutes, with five minutes for the reply to the toast.  The introduction of a speaker should be similarly limited, the main speaker taking no more than fifteen, at most twenty, minutes to deliver his message.  Call on speaker as soon as possible in the program, preferably not late in the evening.  Let the words of appreciation be few and give advance notice to the one thanking the speaker so he can be prepared.  Close the evening soon after the main speaker has finished.  As a general rule, if you close your social hour as soon as the main speaker has finished you will make no mistake.  Let simplicity and consideration for others be the chief characteristic of the social hour. 



To summarize, attendance seems to depend upon careful and efficient organization of meetings well in advance and knowing how much time will be involved.  The point is simply that the brethren will turn up if the meetings are interesting, instructive and enjoyable. 



These were the recommendations of the Board of General Purpose of Grand Lodge almost forty years ago.  They impress me as relevant today.  They bear the mark of wisdom.



_________

*An article published in The Newsletter, a publication of The Committee on Masonic Education of Grand Lodge A.F.& A.M. of Canada in the Province of Ontario, Sprint, 1986, Vol. 7, No. 1.







































































































cp_004.88

The Solicitation "Rule"

Secrets But Not Secretive *



Properly speaking, the rule about soliciting members is not a "regulation". If you recall your ritual, a candidate for initiation into the Craft is asked if he is unbiased by the improper solicitation of friends, and uninfluenced by mercenary or other unworthy motives, and if he offers himself as a candidate freely and voluntarily. But to put these queries in context, the candidate is also asked if he can assure the Brethren in open Lodge that he is prompted to join by a favorable opinion of the institution and motivated by a general desire for knowledge and a desire to be more extensively serviceable to others. Not that he may not already be serving others in the most exemplary manner, but simply that he sees in Masonry an opportunity to give even greater service. It's important to keep all these charges in mind when speaking to a prospective candidate who is interested in joining the Craft, not just the item referring to the non-solicitation principle.



Of course, as far as having a "favorable" impression of the Craft, how is the non-member going to get that today. Masonry seems to be attracting attention in the public and private media only when there's something to print that's unfavorable to the Craft. Maybe to take the offensive is the best defense in such cases. Grand Lodge is to be commended for publishing pamphlets like "What is Freemasonry?" and "Masonic Benevolence." But let's get these pamphlets in the hands of others. At your regular meetings put them by the Lodge Register so that the Brethren may take two, three or more copies to give to friends and acquaintances when the opportunity arises.



Because the phrase "improper solicitation" is used in the ritual, some Brethren have argued that there is therefore something called proper soliciting. The principle is no soliciting whatsoever. This does not mean that we can say nothing at all about Freemasonry to a non-member. There is much information about the Craft which can be given to non-members without infringing upon the solicitation principle. We are not a secretive institution or a "Secret Order". If so, no one would know for sure if we existed. However, we do have information that is private to our members, information which is no one else's business. These are what we call our secrets; these are the details of our ritual, but not the ideas and principles contained therein, and our modes of recognition.



In 1984, an article appeared in the Grand Lodge of Scotland Year Book about the solicitation "rule". The article was a reprint from the New Mexico Freemason. What is said in the article is this: there never has been and there is no written rule which states that "you shall not solicit anyone to join the Craft". However, do remember that the candidate will be asked if he is becoming a member of the Lodge as a result of "improper solicitation from friends." The expectation is that the candidate has joined the Craft "of his own free will and accord." The key here is the phrase "of his own free will and accord." This phrase should eliminate any necessity of talking about "solicitation", or "improper solicitation". It is a most important phrase.



Never to mention anything that gives even the remotest suggestion that you are a Freemason would be an exaggerated posture. With some people this may be the prudent thing to do. With others, of course not. The point of the non-soliciting principle and the principle of joining the Craft from a complete freedom of inclination is not one of the so-called landmarks of Freemasonry. Yet, this principle makes us unique among clubs, societies and other organizations. Yet, it is not one of the so-called landmarks of Freemasonry. We do not have membership drives or recruitment contests. Even in times of dwindling membership, and evidently the Craft has experienced such declines in the past, we have survived as an institution, and probably due to this particularly unique feature of ours, the so-called non-soliciting principle.



The fact that the non-solicitation principle is misunderstood and wrongly applied is a major cause for regret today. More than ever before this is an age of great desire for information and for disclosure. Any institution out of step with this attitude is highly suspect. What the non-solicitation principle means is this. A non-member must want to become a member and not "sold" into becoming a Mason, or motivated expecting business or political advantages from membership. There will always be some who join the Craft in hopes that it will be good for business or that it might help them politically. The founders of the Craft were probably aware of this possibility. As a safeguard, each Lodge appoints an investigating committee which tries to determine the candidate's motives and his preparedness to undertake the committment of membership in the Craft.



In talking to non-members or prospective candidates we do not have to be silent and tell no one about the aims and objects of the Craft, or about its nature. If you can properly present it, and there are publications to help you, then do so. Of course, one way to prepare yourself to speak well about the Craft, and to show your pride in membership, is to become familiar with the ritual and its content. It's all there - why we exist, what we are trying to accomplish, what we stand for.



If we get an enquiring person, I think it's important to let him know we do not issue invitations to non-members to join the Craft, but you can tell him what happens if he decides to apply. I have spoken with new members, who after a year in the Craft, still believe that they must be invited to participate in its work instead of taking the initiative to offer themselves for further participation and advancement.

What are the secrets of Masonry? Simply the details of the degrees and the modes of recognition. These are private to the Craft.



What are not secrets? It's not a secret that Freemasonry is a serious philosophical organization. You can tell a non-member that our ceremonies are not childish horseplay, but in keeping with the dignity of its purposes. We can certainly let people know that the fundamental principles of Masonry are based on the idea of the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man. We can also let others know that politics and religion are considered divisive subjects and barred from Masonic meetings as topics of discussion and conversation. It is not our purpose to get anyone to do or believe anything contrary to his moral, civic or religious duties.



What else can we tell non-members about Masonry? We can certainly let them know about the charitable works done by the Craft in all aspects of Community Life. I am constantly surprised to learn about the good works done by our Masonic Foundations that are rarely, if ever, mentioned in Lodge, let alone outside of Lodge.



Why does Masonry discourage making a "sales pitch" to a prospective member? There's one very important reason. If an applicant is rejected by ballot, then likely he may become angry with the person who gave the "sales pitch". Worse yet, if the ballot is passed and in the ceremony the candidate answers that he was subject to undue pressure to join, then the ceremony would have to come to an end, thereby embarrassing the candidate, the Lodge and the sponsoring member.



Of course, what is considered a "sales pitch" depends on the relationship between the person involved and all the surrounding circumstances. For example, it would be improper to say to someone, "Why have you never become a Mason?". Also improper would be to say something like "you have all the necessary qualifications to become a Mason and I will be glad to sponsor your membership". But this would not be improper if the enquiring person has taken the first step, and subsequently asks if you think he would be qualified to become a member. Then you may tell him you think he has all the required qualifications, and that you would be pleased to sponsor him.



The words of The New Mexico Freemasonry make a point well worth repeating here verbatim. The Free Will and Accord Rule cannot be changed. It is the man alone, divested of all outward recommendations of rank, state or riches, that Freemasonry accepts and it is his spiritual or moral worth alone which can open for him the door of our Masonic Lodge.

Finally, to quote:



There is no objection to a neutrally worded approach being made to a man who is considered a suitable candidate for Freemasonry. There can be no objection to his being reminded, once that the approach was made. The potential candidate should be left to make his own decision, without further solicitation.



If a serious enquiry is made, give the enquirer a copy of the official Grand Lodge publication "What is Freemasonry?", at the same time, however, do make it quite clear that you are in no way extending to him an invitation to become a Freemason.



Hopefully, these few words on the subject of the non-solicitation principle have been helpful to you. You might want to seriously spend some time in your Lodge further discussing some of the points made in this article. If we give no information ever to non-members about Masonry, how do we expect to attract worthy men to the Craft? Likewise, we do a disservice if we misinform others about the Craft, or fail to demonstrate in our own lives the fundamental principles and tenets of Masonry. Let's do some more thinking and have more discussion about this among ourselves, and try to find constructive and appropriate ways to bring to the attention of others a way of thinking and living that we fondly embrace, and like all good and generous men, would like to share with others who might derive from membership the same joy and satisfaction we have derived from membership in our beloved Craft.



_________

*A talk adapted from sources indicated in the text given at an Emergent Meeting of University Lodge A.F.& A.M., No. 496, April 26, 1987













































cp_005.88

Of Two Minds *



Introduction

The Mason is above all metaphorically considered a Craftsman. In fact, a Masonic Lodge is referred to as a Craft Lodge. In my opinion, this is what the Mason is striving to be throughout his association with the Craft, one who has dedicated himself to keep building for himself, for his family and community a better life, one established on sound and well tested principles.



He is reminded as a Craftsman to make the liberal arts and sciences his future study that he may the better enabled to discharge his duties as a Fellowcraft and thereby appreciate the wonderful works of the Almighty.



He is also told that Masonry is a progressive science. In keeping with that characteristic of it, he is encouraged to extend his researches into the hidden mysteries of nature and science.



It is further suggested to him that Masonry should afford him the privilege of improving his intellectual powers which should qualify him to become a useful member of society and like the skilful craftsman he is encouraged to become to strive to excel in what is good and great.



To this end, in keeping with my promise to act as a good and faithful Craftsman in my studies, I present this brief talk about the human mind in the hope of stimulating a sense of wonder and awe about the gift of life that has been bestowed upon us, and more precisely the gift of our very humanity.



The Two Minds **



Human beings are complex.  That's what makes the scientific study of people so challenging and exciting for psychologists.  Lately, we have made many new discoveries about the human mind, some discoveries more fascinating than others.  In my talk I want to speak about one very fascinating frontier of research into the human personality, namely the human brain.  And I want to show you that the mind is not all brain, but it is also heart and at times the little child in us all.

Well, we probably have five minds, you know. We are not really just of one mind. Of course, you may sometimes wonder if some people you know have a mind at all. Let me assure you they have.  And that mind is working all the time, even in sleep.  But I don't think you need worry about that, unless you are in the habit of talking in your sleep. In my talk I'm going to speak about only two of our five minds, the logical one and the intuitive one. 



The two minds to which I am referring are, of course, the right half and the left half of the brain.  As you may already know, our brains are split in half, with a right hemisphere and a left hemisphere.  For most people, the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body.  In most of us the two halves are not equal.  Some of us seem to be better at using one side than the other.  Of course, I really don't have to prove this to you. You know from your own experience that some people tend to be better at using their right hand and others at using their left hand.  One side of the brain, one hemisphere seems to be more active, or more developed, than the other.  It seems to dominate the other.  We acknowledge this fact when we use expressions such as: his left hand doesn't know what his right hand is doing or don't let your left hand know what your right hand is doing; think with the heart; I'm of two minds about that; a picture is worth a thousand words.

Well, I trust you've got the idea now.  According to the latest evidence, people who operate more from the left brain, tend to be more logical, more attentive to detail; they tend to be more critical and tend to think in words.  People who operate more from the right brain are more likely to be more imaginative, intuitive, see things in terms of the broad picture, and they are also more likely to think in images or pictures.  They tend to be more outgoing in expressing their feelings which may show in their tone of voice, facial expression or hand gestures.

The left-brained person tends to be more critical, more censorious and self-conscious, while the right-brained person tends to be more spontaneous, more accepting and sensitive. However, few of us are wholly one or the other.  We are more likely to be a combination of the two.



This discovery, if it continues to hold true under further rigorous and exacting research, has serious implications for the education of the child.  Some psychologists suggest that an elementary school program restricted to reading, writing, and arithmetic would penalize those children who are right hemisphere dominated, leading perhaps to special problems in terms of maintaining classroom discipline.

I think we can safely say that children who are right hemisphere dominated are more likely to have problems like acting out, withdrawing, being easily distracted.  In fact, the more right-brained the child, the more the child is likely to be a discipline problem at school.  Also, children who are right-brain dominated and right handed seem to have more problems in concentrating, which could make them easily prone to acting out and being easily distracted.  Our school system may be unfriendly and unsympathetic to the child with a dominant right brain.

The child with a dominant right brain has been described as the naturalistic child and the child with a dominant left brain has been described as the socialized child.  Let me demonstrate the difference by reading what each child might say about himself. I will begin with a description of the socialized child (the left- brain dominated child), which an adult might make. In our society this child is more likely to be a boy, by training and cultural conditioning, so I hope you will forgive my referring to this kind of child as a boy:



The Socialized Child



I live with my Mother and Father and my brothers and sisters. We live in a small town in north central Ontario where I go to Junior Elementary School. I am ten years old, typical for boys my age in size and general interests.  I do well in school, and I often make very good grades which everyone seems to think will help when I go to college.  We believe in God and attend church every sunday.  I like living in Canada. My father is an accountant and works very hard, and he's a good father and a proud to be a Canadian.  I like playing baseball and hockey.  I have some good friends, and the place where we live is a clean and happy community, a great place to live.  I wish that all of the world could live like we do so everyone would be as lucky as I am.

The Naturalized Child



Now let's hear from the naturalized child (the right-brain dominated child).



I love the feeling of running and simply lying on the grass.  I make up stories in which people don't talk but everyone knows what each is thinking.  I race to distant places in a moment and live in tomorrow and yesterday as if they were today.  I become an eagle and a river, sometimes I grow and become a giant or shrink and become smaller than a mouse. I imagine building a great tower and create images in my mind which I have never seen before.  I seem to sense things before they happen, and I feel a relationship with things that happened before I was born.  I reflect quietly on myself and learn about the world without reading or going to school.  I have secret places I can hide and I talk to creatures which no one else knows about or can see.  When I want something, no one or nothing can stop me; I am full of love and hate all at once.  I love to be touched and to touch back for it makes me feel good.  I watch what people do and know what they think.  I make things without reading the directions and often get into trouble because I'm late or forget what time it is.  Teachers get upset when I don't finish my work and everyone is concerned about grades which don't seem very important to me.



Right-Brain, Left-Brain Test



Here's a very rough test, to see if you tend mentally to be right-brain or left-brain dominant.  Perhaps you can remember your answers as I read the items to you.



1. When you walk into a theatre or auditorium or lecture room, which side do you prefer to sit on?  Right or left?

2. Do you often have hunches?  Yes or no?

When you have them, do you follow them?  Yes or no?

3. Do you have a place for everything and everything in its place?  Yes or no?

4. In learning a dance step, is it easier for you to

a: learn by imitation and getting the feel of the music

or

b: learn the sequence of movements and talk your way through the steps?

5. Do you like to move your furniture several times a year or do you prefer to keep the same arrange ment?  Move or same?

6. Can you tell approximately how much time has passed without a watch?  Yes or no?

7. Speaking in strictly relative terms, is it easier for you to understand geometry or algebra?  Geometry or algebra?



To score:



1. Choosing right side when choosing place to sit

2. Yes I have hunches and yes I follow them

3. No, I don't have a place for every thing and everything in its place.

4. I tend to learn a dance step by imitating and getting a feel for the music

5. I like to move my furniture several times a year

6. No I can't tell how much time has passed without a watch

7. Geometry is relatively easier for me

The Left Brain

The left cerebral hemisphere's skills are those that, at least since the renaissance, have been most favored by western civilization.  It helps us to be analytical, rational and practical. People dominated by the left brain do not long for a mystical union with the cosmos; they just want the facts, ma'am!  Because the left brain is almost entirely responsible for all human verbal skills, people in this category tend to be good conversationalists and writers.  In fact, when a split-brained patient talks, it's his left brain alone that is speaking to you.  Information contained in the right brain cannot be expressed in words, since that hemisphere has the approximate linguistic ability of a three or four years old child.

Most technocrats, scientists, mathematicians, computer experts are left brained.  So are lawyers.  They use the hemisphere's logic ability to assemble bits of disparate information into a coherent whole.  Because they combine linguistic and logical abilities so well, people in this category are often brilliant and witty.  But, others come across as driven, nervous and fanatically single- minded.  Ralph Nader, for instance, is a classic left-brain man.  He is devoted to a single goal and allows virtually no outside interests to interfere.



The Right Brain



People dominated by their right brains tend to be intuitive and emotional.  They take a holistic approach to life; they sense things all at once and don't like to get bogged down in details.  They see the gestalt of things, instinctively absorbing the subtle connections and relationships that make up their sphere of consciousness.  There is considerable evidence that creativity is centered in the right brain.  So is spatial perception.  Consequently, most artists are right- brain people. 



Even the scientist in his most creative moments seems to be right brain, for example, someone like einstein who claimed that his most important discoveries came to him as images, in pictures, not words.  Only after he had the inspiration, did he go back and let his left brain work out the linguistic and mathematical descriptions of his discoveries.



Right brain people also have a deep-seated musical sense.  Alexander Luria of moscow's Burdenko institute (he was one of the world's most famous brain specialists) once treated a patient, a composer, whose left hemisphere had been incapacitated by a stroke.  The man couldn't say a word, but with his unaffected right brain he went on composing as well as before.  The exception to this rule is the professional musician.  Rather than creating music, he must have extreme technical competence in order to reproduce it accurately.  Therefore, he is likely to be left brained. For him, music is not inspiration or melody but a line of notes, a language, to be put in order by his left brain.  Right brained people are also more easily hypnotized. 



As a group they are more athletic.  They are also people who can remember your face but not your name.  The face, being an object in space, is remembered by the right brain.  The name, a matter of language, is stored in the left brain and thus may not be easily retrieved by people who are right-brained dominated.  People in this category make good californians; they tend to be laid back and mellow.  But their passivity can sometimes disintegrate into withdrawal and depression.



The Balanced Brain



Between the two extremes described above are people whose personalities blend the characteristics of both brain hemispheres.  They are nice folks to be around, since they are not likely to exhibit either the extreme single-mindedness of the left-brained types or the terminal hollowness of some right-brainers.  Depending upon your career, this will never let the other dominate.  Neither brain is likely to achieve the full exercise of its talents.  Yet that limitation may prove a boon in fields that require the skills of the middle-man or the mediator.  True, you may never be a great writer, but you may make one outstanding editor.  You may not be a great artist, but you may make a great financial success as a gallery owner.  You may not be able to design computers, but you may be able to sell them very well.  Your ability to match names with faces could be the basis for a promising political career.



One last thing; you should be great at charades, given the balance you have between your right brain, which gives you the manual dexterity, and your left brain, with its linguistic abilities.  If you are ever offered a job as a professional charades player, take it - you should go far!



In closing, I sincerely wish and pray that each of you may come to appreciate your special gifts of personality and as a result of this appreciation that you may be motivated to continue to develop those talents which lie dormant in you, and that you may as well become inclined to assist other human beings to do the same. May you know the joy of thinking with your heart as well as with your intellect; and may you always stay in touch with the little child within you, which is the true source of our capacity to wonder, to enjoy and to create.



_________

*These remarks were addressed to a gathering of Masons, their ladies and friends on the occasion of the Third Annual William Dunlop Memorial Scholarship Dinner held on May 8, 1987 at Hart House and sponsored by University Lodge A.F.& A.M., No. 496, G.R.C.



** The material that follows has been collected largely from unpublished sources with no signature, so credit cannot be given where credit is due. It would be unprofessional of me to claim for my own that which is not original with me. However, the ideas presented herein have been adapted by me for the purpose of this lecture. I take full responsibility for any errors, inaccuracies or misrepresentation resulting from oversimplified and entertaining way in which I have presented them.

























































































































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MENTAL TRANSMUTATION *

An Exercise in Hermetic Philosophy





Most students of religion, philosophy and science would be willing to give serious consideration to the idea that the Universe is one of Law and Order, governed by Natural Divine Laws. Whether or not one holds to this idea could have important consequences for the life of the invdividual.



NATURAL LAW



According to this concept of God's Universe, the Laws of Nature, because they are laws of nature, are seen to operate not only for the one who knows and understands them, but for everyone, regardless of what they know. The Soul is thought to be punished or rewarded as one has violated the laws of nature or obeyed them. Ignorance does not excuse anyone from the law. No one person, or group of people, is singled out for life's good or life's evil. All are subject to the Law, and God's law itself, regardless of a person's rank, fortune, race, color or creed, punishes the Soul in so far as one has chosen to disregard the Divine directives, or rewards the Soul to the extent that he or she has chosen to harmonize with the law. We can depend on this. 



Few people, at least among the many people I've met over my lifetime, have this understanding of life. I have learned that money alone cannot buy this knowledge, this understanding. It is priceless. This is knowledge that belongs to the Soul, not the knowledge of the mind, although it is knowledge that builds upon what the mind can know. It is what we call spiritual knowledge, or Wisdom. 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE SOUL AND NATURAL LAW



Recall your years in the pit of unknowing.  Compare then and now.  Perhaps, like me, you have had much to overcome to have the spiritual understanding you now have. Each has had to fight the Battle of Armageddon, the battle that rages within, the battle between the Spiritual and the Animal Nature. Or you may think of it as a battle between the Real Self and the False Self, or between the God Part and the Devil Part, or between the forces of good and evil, or between the Positive and the Negative.

However you want to think of it, the personality, like a pendulum, keeps swinging between these two extremes, until it gets the knowledge and understanding necessary to be able to bring harmony within the personality.  He who overcomes his Devil Part or Animal Nature, he who can control the negative aspect of his expression through right thinking and right action is promised an inner peace and happiness surpassing any ordinary human comprehension. 



Whoever understands that Spirit and Matter have been working from all eternity in an orderly and uniform manner, evolving into higher and higher expression, understands that misfortune and unhappiness are consequences of being off track, of failure to adapt to change and the negative forces of nature.  Through the disciplined and wise use of reason, the Soul can understand that Law is everywhere and all powerful.  It is simply the expression of the Omnipresent and Omnipotent God.  Law is present in all life, the material and the immaterial.  All is subject to Law, for Law is nothing more than the spirit of God in orderly manifestation. 



THE HUMAN PERSONALITY AND NATURAL LAW

At some point in time in the evolution of consciousness, REASON enters into animal consciousness and elevates it to human consciousness.  Then the animal consciousness is transformed into the image and likeness of God, the Divine Consciousness. The latent human Soul becomes active. As the power of reason increases in the child, the Soul becomes aware of the existence of Good and Evil; but lacking an awareness of the Law of Relativity, the personality becomes enslaved to the opposites. The individual assumes that things are in themselves either negative or positive, good or evil. He assumes wrongly. Only in the degree that things are related to other things are they good or evil. 



Gradually the personality matures, and the Soul learns how to use his God-given power to reason in order to adapt himself to those physical things which people call evil. He learns how to make clothing for himself and how to build himself a place of shelter for protection against the harmful extremes of cold, heat, rain, snow and wind.

Again, at some point in time, the human becomes aware that he has a MIND. There too, in the use of his MIND, natural law operates. Some emotions he classifies as good, and he enjoys them as he does the good things of life. The Soul is happy when experiencing faith, hope, generosity, patience, sympathy, kindness, courage, forgiveness, love and duty.  But as the immutable Law of Opposites forever operates, these positive attributes must have their opposites.  So we become aware of fear, worry, selfishness, anger, criticism, envy, greed, hypocrisy, prejudice, jealousy, and hatred. As with the evil things of this world, we learn that we have to live with these unpleasant emotions. Every day each one must face these evils, manifesting themselves in varying degrees in his own personality and in the personalities surrounding him. Each tries to protect himself against these evil forces. Still, we may find to our disappointment that we are enslaved to them. It may seem to us that we are addicted to them, that we can't avoid being affected by them. Our peace is disturbed by them. We become unhappy.



Perhaps, we fail to understand the Law of Opposites, that everything is good or evil relative to something else. It is bad to lose one's leg, but it is worse to lose one's life.  Not understanding this law of opposites and other divine laws, we are unable to understand how to ADAPT ourselves constructively to what is happening to us. Then, at another point in time, the desire may awaken in us to learn how to modify that part within ourselves with which we are unhappy. 



The Knowledge we may be seeking is an understanding of how things really are. For example, the understanding that Good does not exist by itself.  It is always accompanied by the Bad.  We may gradually evolve in consciousness sufficiently to understand that God in his divine wisdom created all things for a purpose. Nothing of itself is good, nothing evil, except that it does or does not fit in with the divine plan for the individual.  Then we may come to understand properly the metaphysical principle of the Law of Relativity. With this understanding, we will now no longer be enslaved by the opposites. We can then learn how to adapt to our emotions, just as in the past, through the evolution of intelligence, humanity has been able to adapt to the cold, heat, rain,snow, and and other elements of nature. We can then understand that as long as we live in this world we will always be living among the opposites, and at the same time we do not not have to be seriously affected by them. 



So many people do not understand the organization of the universe or the meaning of life -- that God is directing the universe according to a plan and that everything is designed for a purpose. They have their lists of Good and Evil, and if they could, they would eliminate the Evil. They do not yet understand that God in his divine wisdom has created everything for a purpose and that everything is either good or evil by comparison.  How fortunate is one who has been given this understanding, an understanding that provides one with a knowledge of the Laws by which the Creator governs and directs his worlds. 



In one sense, then, all things, all thoughts, and all acts are RELATIVE.  We mean by this that something appears to us good or evil only by comparing it to something else. Every thing, every thought, and every act takes on its qualifications only by comparison.  Further reflection will undoubtedly impress upon the serious person that we are living in a universe of law and order and that God rules it all.  It might be the better part of wisdom to cease trying to change God's world, and to carry on living our lives without being too much disturbed by all that which displeases us. For that which can be made to appear unpleasant can also be made to appear desireable. Everything we experience can be given a meaning, a significance of its own, both the good and the evil. We can think of the evil in our lives as a much-needed lesson whose purpose is to assist us to advance on the Path of Attainment. 



As one philosopher has put it: "When a person liberates himself from the bonds of the desires of his heart and finds satisfaction in serving the Spirit within, he has attained to Spiritual Consciousness. His mind is no longer disturbed neither, by adversity nor by prosperity. He accepts both. He is tied to neither. Anger, fear, and worry have been cast off as discarded garments. Realizing that God rules it all, he has learned to accept, and adapts himself to whatever God sends his way. With the power of his mental equipment he applies the Law of Transmutation of Energy to the evil, and by comparing it to something more evil in the scale, he transmutes the evil into good."

EMOTION AND THE HUMAN PERSONALITY



Almost everyone finds himself dominated by or influenced to a greater or lesser extent by negative and unpleasant emotions like fear, worry, anger, and jealousy. He also begins to discover that faith, love, patience, and hope are more satisfying and more conducive to peace of mind and happiness than their negative counterparts.  But he finds that controlling the negative emotions requires great understanding and discipline. 



It is a considerable advancement in awareness to recognize that Universal Law can be applied to understand the workings of the Mind. Mind may be described as the activity of the brain cells when the Soul is thinking.  When the brain cells are active they radiate electromagnetic energy. So a thought-form is a form of energy; an emotion also is simply a form of energy. But an emotion is a certain kind of energy, an inner power or force that moves us from within.  Emotion is what drives us to act and to react, to think. Thought itself, however, has the power to control not only the acts we perform, but also the emotions we feel. Thus, it is important that we think aright.



It has been observed that the new-born child's capacity to feel is greater than its capacity to think and to care for itself. However, the latent Soul in the child gradually awakens as reason begins to take on a greater role in the life of the human. In the adult state, a person becomes most capable of caring for himself. The Soul can now make intelligent choices, relying on reason to guide and protect the life of the individual, rather than relying on instinct as in the state of animal consciousness. Consequently, because the soul is capable of faulty reasoning, one can make choices which appear to have been a mistake.  I may sometimes regret my choices and find that they cause me unhappiness. 

Thus, with the appearance of reason, the animal nature is now awakened to a knowledge of good and evil. Some choices bring happiness, health, success, peace. They are called good. Other choices bring, disappointment, illness, failure, and distress. They are called bad. 



One Law governing Creation appears to be the law of change (or the Perpetual Transmutation of Radiant Energy).  Although we probably would all readily acknowledge that change in our lives is inevitable, we may not enthusiatically welcome some changes. In fact, we may at times resent having to make any changes at all in our habits or ways of thinking or ways of living. 

The Soul who understands the principle of adaptation understands that the negative experiences of life, including bad feelings. happen in order that one may grow. Whoever understands this accepts bad feelings as characteristic of the human personality, preparing the way for the personality to evolve to a state of divine consciousness. Why did God create the universe this way? Quite frankly, I don't know. Only, my experience and my reason tell me that God's Universe is this way, and I am better off to harmonize with it if I want to avoid being the instrument of my own misfortune and unhappiness. 



Accepting that all is energy, and that energy has two aspects, POSITIVE and NEGATIVE, and accepting that what is bad is simply Energy that appears in its negative aspect, then it's only logical that by knowing and making use of Divine Law, we should be able to adapt to evil by transmuting the negative forces of life to our good, simply by changing the polarity. Like an author, we can create our own script, writing our own play or movie, by working with mental and spiritual energy, changing bad luck to good fortune, illness to health, failure to success, pain to pleasure, in short, negative to positive.

 

Without this understanding the individual soul may be unable to really know, study and understand the laws which govern his Body, Mind and Soul. 

In "Rays of the Dawn," the author, Dr. Fleet, names the negative emotions.  They are FEAR. WORRY, SELFISHNESS, VANITY, ANGER, CRITICISM, ENVY, GREED, HYPOCRISY, PREJUDICE, JEALOUSY AND HATE. "Rays of the Dawn" is for me one of the most important texts that I have ever read and studied.  The author himself suggested that "Rays of the Dawn," could provide one with a sure path to self-knowledge and greater health; that the ideas in it, if taken seriously, would ensure permanent progress in attaining Health, Happiness, Success, and eventual Peace. 



EVIL AND THE EMOTIONS



People usually will agree that the negative emotions of the mind like fear, worry, anger and hatred are evil or bad. For example, excesses of fear, anger and hatred can impair our ability to reason. Wouldn't one be inclined to call this bad or unfortunate? Consider the jealous lover who, in a fit of rage, murders his loved ones and then commits suicide.  Wouldn't one be inclined to call this bad? Or the personality so emotionally deranged that it never recovers the use of reason, thus losing its own Soul, so to speak, and consequently confined in a mental health clinic for life, unable to take care of itself, reduced to a state of vegetative consciousness. Wouldn't one be inclined to call this bad?



In a recent article published in Toronto's leading national newspaper, The Globe and Mail, suicide and alcoholism were linked to the South African government's policy of Apartheid, a policy entrenched by feelings of fear and prejudice. One medical doctor (Lloyd Vogelman), head of a group of psychiatrists and psychologists, announced at a conference of medical doctors that "apartheid and ill health are inseparable." 



The director of the National Council for Mental Health in South Africa (Lage Vitus), at a press interview, admitted that "apartheid in itself is a mental illness...(causing) frustration on the part of the black person (and) insecurity on the part of the white person...(who is) fearful how the black person is going to react."  The Pretoria director of the Lifeline telephone counselling service (Peter Batchelor) was quoted as saying that "South Africa is a materialistic society."  He went on to say what we all know is true for such a society, that "when people lose their jobs and possessions, their reason for living vanishes."  Wouldn't one be inclined to call this bad?



Without a knowledge and understanding of divine law and how those laws apply to solving the problems of life, the Soul is reduced to the conditions I have just described.  The negative emotions must be overcome and put in proper perspective if the people are to establish a nation that is healthy, prosperous, and at peace. 



Imagine the personality so deranged by anger that the blood pressure rises causing heart failure and death, or causing a cerebral stroke, thereby impairing the ability to speak or the ability to move the arms and legs of one side of the body. Wouldn't one be inclined to call this bad? 

Energy can be controlled to change its negative expression (the problem) to its positive expression of the same ENERGY (the solution). It takes no more energy to be patient than it takes to get angry. They're simply opposite aspects of the same Energy.  Both represent potentials for eventual activity. They are "activated" by TRANSMUTING or TRANSMITTING the ENERGY.



For example, anger is transmitted when the muscles of the body tense, the blood pressure rises, and perhaps the fist and jaws clench. Anger may be transmuted when the person, conscious of the anger in himself, pauses to think before speaking or acting. This would be an instance of transmuting anger to its opposite, namely, patience. For years, I placed a 5 x 7 card printed with the words on it: "Stop, Look and Listen."  I put these 5 x 7 cards wherever I might see them. The cards served to impress upon my consciousness a way to be patient, reminding me to pause, to use my powers of observation in order to prevent me from over-reacting or to keep me from jumping to incorrect conclusions.   



To become a better teacher and a better colleague, it seemed terribly important for me to curb any tendency towards irritability and any tendency to act without giving each person his or her due. Getting to understand about patience and its relationship to anger was an insight that enabled me to restore my health at a period of my life when I was suffering from great emotional stress and mental strain. This relationship of patience to anger seems to be an idea unfamiliar to most psychiatrists and psychologists. Understanding this relationship could be most helpful to them when anger is really what is causing the patient's physical distress. The solution to the patient's problem is not simply giving him medication to relieve his symptoms, but to transmute the anger into acts of patience.   



Consider a person with a lot of fear, a person, for example, afraid to apply for a job because he or she obviously and embarrassingly gets nervous during an interview. The fear is transmitted or expressed as sweaty hands, or through other physical symptoms like an upset stomach or backache, or trembling or stuttering. Besides physcial symptoms caused by fear, there are psychological symptoms as well, like procrastinating, or making excuses or alibis, doing anything but solving the problem of overcoming one's fear. Imagine the following sequence. A mutual friend suggests enrolling in an evening course advertised to teach one how to improve one's self-confidence. The course promises to show the student how to make a good impression in an interview. Imagine that the two friends decide to enroll in the course as a step in helping themselves overcome the fear of applying for a job. They take the course, gain the help they need, and thereby transmute their fear to confidence. With this newly gained confidence, they are now emotionally free to apply for a job.  Wouldn't one be inclined to call this good?



THE MENTAL TRANSMUTATION OF THE EVIL OF PREJUDICE



Prejudice is another law of the mind. It may show itself as a deeply fixed tendency to preserve the status quo even at the expense of one's growth. A person so inclined will do everything in his power to prevent any change in his circumstances. In my circle of psychologists, we have a motto: if what you are doing isn't working, do anything else. The prejudiced person is usually unwilling to consider any viewpoint other than his own. He condemns without study or investigation anything different from that which he already believes. Prejudice also takes many other forms, like religious intolerance or racial discrimination.  



"Different," to one who is prejudiced, means dangerous, wrong. In extreme cases of prejudice, the one who is different from the group in power is fair game for exploiting. It's even okay to imprison, beat, torture or kill anyone who is too different.

Sometimes prejudice is a way of disguising our fears. Instead of facing fear honestly and openly, we transmit the fear as prejudice by refusing to examine our preconceived notions of what's good and what's evil. This is only natural, for fear is an instinctive response of the animal consciousness to a perceived threat of physical harm or personal loss. Changing one's beliefs, one's concepts, may be disturbing to the personality because one may not know exactly what the effect is going to be. One could lose friends this way, or one's job, or customers, or spouse, or whole family. 



To help a person overcome the negative effect of bias, one approach I've found useful is to get the person to overcome the fear behind the prejudice. Often when there's an impasse in labor-management negotiations, I try to get each side to tell the other what harm or loss could come to them if the other side's position were adopted. It usually helps to resolve the impasse and often to reduce the degree of prejudice preventing a reasonable settlement of differences.



Narrow, self-interest groups also reward prejudice.  Hitler's Nazi party is a perfect example of this.  Today, we see the same extreme prejudice among peoples in the mid-east.  The effect is violence and military aggression, acts of terrorism and civil war. 



Stereotyping would be a more subtle type of prejudice. Innocent as this kind of prejudice may appear, any prejudice, however innocent and unintended, bears the effect of the law and harms the Soul's progress on the path to greater spiritual consciousness. With your permission, I'ld like you to try a simple test.  Mentally fill in the blank in the following sentence.  "The judge was pleased when heard the jury's verdict."  And then this sentence:  "The nurse immediately called the Doctor when saw the patient went into coma." Most people will think of the judge as a man and the nurse as a woman, although the judge could be a woman and the nurse could be a man. 



Stereotyping is not to be overlooked because it is less extreme than racial discrimination or religious persecution. Of course, each Soul who chooses to give expression to feelings ofprejudice, whether in the form of racial discrimination or religious persecution, or on the basis of gender, is acting relative to his evolution in consciousness, and thereby believes that he is doing what is right. 



Understand that the law of relativity and the law of opposites apply to prejudice, too. It has its positive aspect. For example, everyone has preferences. We would hope, however, that our preferences are reasonable.  We know, however, that the Soul is responsible for choosing and will experience the consequences of its choices. So we would be wise to educate and discipline our reasoning powers so that our preferences are those of an enlightened human consciousness. Only by overcoming the Devil Part or the Carnal, can we minimize the evil of the negative emotions and thereby raise our consciousness. 



Obviously, I like the Christian philosophy.  But I hope this does not mean that I have a closed mind. I hope that I am still capable of thinking for myself.  The closed mind turns off people who are thinkers. And Christianity, as far as I understand it, embraces the thinking Soul. I remember the founder of the Concept-Therapy philosophy, an expression of the principles of Christianity as he understood them, intimating to me that his teachings were not the last word about on the subject. This admission surprised me at the time. He also hinted that there would probably be another understanding to come along, being advanced through another spiritually enlightened human consciousness. 



The Soul who wishes to be liberated from the limiting and enslaving effects of the negative emotion of prejudice, learns to transmute the energy by seeing some good in the object of its prejudice, thus feeling inclined to forgive and overlook the bad points.  The Soul perceiving the good in the object of his prejudice will thus be able to transmute the evil of prejudice into the positive vibration of forgiveness by acts of kindness, compassion and charity. Once in control of the inclination to find fault in others, one can then overcome the tiresome habit of always blaming and condemning others for every wrong in the world.   



THE MENTAL TRANSMUTATION OF GREED



Greed is another law of the mind.  It is the inordinate desire for per sonal satisfaction and gratification.  It may take many forms like excessive desire for material possessions, power, wealth, luxury, honor, security, or prestige. The desire for instant knowledge, instant cure, instant success, a desire for the easy way, the soft touch, the cushy job may be considered forms of greed. They are ways of avoiding the process of natural growth.  They show a personal preference for self-indulgence over self-discipline and self-denial. 



In a recent (June, 30, 1986) issue of Macleans, Canada's Weekly Newsmagazine, there was a feature article about white-collar stealing.  The article describes a new phenomenon of the 80's, the white-collar criminal.  Evidently, an increasing number of company presidents, politicians, doctors, lawyers, stockbrokers, and many other well educated Canadians (and Americans), prompted by greed, have turned white-collar crime into big business. Since 1980, the money involved in these crimes far outstrips the total take of bank robberies, violent thefts, burglary and other common types of property crime. These white-collar criminals are professionals, some of them very well-known and highly regarded. In the United States, the government puts the cost of this kind of crime at $44 billion. In 1984, the Canadian Mounties' commercial crime division investigated 8,400 offenses. 



Fraud, dishonesty in advertising, misleading representation of oneself, all are forms of greed, an inordinate desire for wealth and attention, as are the habit of boasting, showing off and excessively talking about oneself.



Another form of greed is the inordinate desire to hoard or to collect things.  How many shoes can one wear, or suits, or dresses?  The first lady of one country was discovered to have collected more than 3,200 pairs of shoes and an equally outlandish number of dresses.  The extremes of greed can be ludicrous at their least harmful, and in the extreme, boundless in their evil, arousing in others anger, hatred, envy, jealousy that lead to crime and war. 



At the same time, without some greed, appropriately controlled, the personality would not be motivated to achieve, to provide for himself and his family. The need for recognition, which drives people to engage in a lifetime of study, or in service to others, or which motivates people to campaign for public office, or to excel in their respective fields, are all forms of greed. 



One of Canada's leading politicians, Barbara McDougall, minister of state for finance, had to apologize, claiming she was just kidding, when she was quoted as having advised Canada's native peoples to learn to be greedy. In an address to Native Canadians at a Native Business Summit held in Toronto, she said, "there's one underlying motive in business shared by all--it's greed.  There's nothing wrong with that. We support it wherever it happens."  In this context, she was saying it's better for the government to be encouraging private initiative motivated by a desire for independence and self-reliance, than to encourage people to become beggars, dependent upon government subsidies for their livelihood.



In my opinion, the most moving portrayal of what greed really costs the one who yields without restraint to the inclination has been written in "Rays of the Dawn." Here's the author's warning. " What humanity has gained in progress contributed by the power of the law of greed pales in comparison to the real possibilites of natural growth. For example, while we have gained in intellect and the pleasure of superficial knowledge, we have lost in intelligence and wisdom; while we have advanced in mechanical ingenuity, we have lost in the intensity of our senses and brilliancy of our faculties; while we have found remedies for some of our deficiencies, we have forgotten how to prevent them; while we have innumerable ways to gratify our desires, we have lost the key to happiness; and with all our boasted gain of whatever kind, we have lost the consciousness of even the possibility of living to the standard of a perfected human nature, which standard is only the first step toward an exalted individuality."  Who could say it any better?



To transmute the negative emotion of greed into its opposite, is to awaken the Soul's inclination, not to acts of generosity alone, as some may mistakenly believe, but to acts of kindness. Kindness encompasses benevolence, consideration, unselfishness, and sympathetic understanding. The human personality characterized by kindness has evolved in its expression of spirit to that state of consciousness where generosity, patience, tolerance, sympathy and love can be felt in his every thought, word, and action. 

Consideration is the embodiment of kindness. If you ever frequently travel on public transportation in a large urban community, as I do, you will have ample opportunity to see examples of consideration or its opposite, rudeness. It sometimes takes a great deal of effort to overcome the devil part and to be consderate when surrounded by the vibration of widespread rudeness and bad manners. Shoving, blocking passage ways, failing to offer one's seat to the elderly and handicapped, all are acts motivated by inordinate greed dominating the personality so that one hardly recognizes it for what it is and the harm it does to one's spiritual nature and the evolution of one's soul. 



Individuals who mistreat children are also violating the law of kindness. One reads more and more about the sexual abuse of children, an outrageous violation of the law of kindness, and about the increased incidence of child suicide, which may be attributed to an intense reaction on the part of the child to its perception of the world's unkindness and cruelty. How long before our consciousness is outraged by humanity's insensitivity to unkindness and cruelty. 



It is important in the education of our children that they be taught the lesson of kindness, kindness to all forms of life, to plant life, to animals, to the elderly and the handicapped and kindness to those less fortunate than themselves. 



Again, kindness can take on a negative quality. There are times when the nature is so dense and evil, the vibration so low, that all the kindness in the world will not avail to transform the individual. It may be one's duty to correct and admonish those given to our care, as is the case for parents and teachers. With a hardened soul, drastic measures may be required, which may not seem kind.  In this case, one's kindness would be misguided and furthermore in violation of one's duty. To be truly kind is to be just and demand justice, to do right and demand right in return. It is a mistaken soul who obeys the law of kindness at the expense of the higher nature. As one evolves in consciousness, through study, through meditation, through right thinking and right action, then the emotional nature will evolve to the degree that the soul will grow in kindness as opportunity permits, as love prompts and wisdom guides.



THE TRANSMUTATION OF EVIL AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE SOUL



To daily work and live in greater harmony with the laws governing Spirit and Matter is to advance surely and steadily on the path of attainment.  It is desireable that we seek to know and understand the laws which govern the Universe and all life. Then, it is up to us to identify ourselves with those laws. Through self-analysis and the study of the laws of the mind and the Soul, the student can attain the greatest of all knowledge, the knowledge of self. He can know the emotions that are influencing his actions, and by learning to apply the universal laws to his emotional expression, he can learn to overcome the negative effects of fear, worry, anger, selfishness and all the other emotions of the mind. He can learn to see in them a potential for good. Through right thinking and right action the Soul can transmute the negative forces operating within the personality and free the Soul from the domination of the negative emotions. With this new-found innner freedom, the Soul can now rejoice in the positive feelings and good that come from a life motivated by an enlightened faith, hope, love, generosity, and forgiveness. 



No matter how things may seem to be, the Soul giving up attachment to the negative emotions, attachment to the carnal nature, to the false self, can now live in harmony with his spiritual nature, with his real self and can now see how things really are.  Having seen the light, and climbing towards it out of the pit of ignorance and darkness, the Soul can now be a light to others and of assistance to the One Life in establishing the Kingdom of God on earth.



I'ld like to close with the following special thought:



The eternal spirit of god now expresses through me in many fine ways, with patience, understanding and love. All these and other equally wonderful qualities blend in perfect balance so that I greet each day and everyone I meet with a loving attitude. Any seeming obstacle is an opportunity for me to realize and expres the patience, understanding, and love that is within me.



With patience and understanding, I watch, learn, and grow as my day unfolds. I have something to learn from those I meet, and I have something to offer them, also. As I share my patience, love, and understanding, I influence the attitudes of others and help them realize that like qualiities are within them.

My capacity for caring is a manifestation of god within me. My cheerfulness is an expression of my appreciation of the spirit of god indwelling each and every one of us. I go forth to greet each day with a kind heart and a loving attitude. 



_________

*Revision of a paper read at a Conference sponsored by the Concept-Therapy Institute of San Antonio Texas, July 4, 1986.





















































































































THE ONTARIO COLLEGE, SRICF *

1937-1987



Introduction



My dear Fratres, tonight (Wednesday, October 21, 1987) we are gathered here in Hart House at the University of Toronto to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Ontario College, SRICF. We are commemorating the fact that we have continued to meet each year since 1937 in unbroken succession, this being our 116th Convocation. Our purpose has been to advance the principles and tenets of our cherished Society as well as to enjoy the special bond of fellowship it has inspired in us. Welcome, and may this evening be one which you shall long treasure.



First, I am delighted to be able to distribute to each person here this evening a brochure listing the Convocation papers that have been presented at our meetings. This brochure lists the date, author and title of each paper from 1961 to 1987, including this evening's special convocation, altogether totaling 73 papers over a period of twenty-seven years. Unfortunately, we can find no record of convocation papers earlier than 1961. The list published for distribution tonight has been checked and rechecked for completeness and accuracy. This record of convocation papers indeed gives unmistakable evidence for the public record of the breadth and depth of our College's interest in Masonic, Rosicrucian, Hermetic and related subjects.





The Society of the Rosy Cross



The Ontario College has been, as its Convocation papers bear witness, a forum for Masons who want to associate themselves with the study and advancement of the principles and tents of Rosicrucianism and Masonry. We are descendants of the Societas Rosicruciana founded in England in 1865 or 1866, the oldest Rosicrucian group, inside or outside the Masonic fraternity, still in existence. Of course, our membership has always been confined exclusively to members of the Masonic Order.



Attempts to establish the earliest verifiable date for the appearance of a Society of the Rosy Cross have been well documented by Rosicrucian scholars.(1) Sources available to scholars, which have been reported by students of Rosicrucianism within our own Society, for example, a history of Masonic Rosicrucian Societies published by M.W. Frater Harold V. Voorhis, IXo,(2) always refer to the existence of certain pamphlets that appeared between 1614 and 1616 in German and Latin alluding to a secret and mysterious Order that had met in Germany for about two centuries. But there is no document that has yet been found showing that there was a Society at all in any incorporated sense. Voorhis, for example, advances the proposition that there never was a definite Rosicrucian organization before the eighteenth century. We know for certain that in the seventeenth century a few persons were referred to as Rosicrucians during their lifetime. We know this through their writings, for example, The Fama Fraternitatis in 1614. But we have no evidence of a Rosicrucian organization that existed as such, a body of men meeting regularly and keeping records of their membership and activities. Personalities identified by scholars as Rosicrucians would be Dr. Robert Fludd (1574-1637), Francis Bacon (1561-1629) and Elias Ashmole (1617-1692), to name a few Englishmen. In conclusion, we can safely say that whether there was anything that could be called a Rosicrucian Society prior to 1865 is doubtful, and at the least any such claim is to be seriously questioned.



Early in the twentieth century a Concordat, dated 1911, was signed between the head of the Masonic Rosicrucian Order of England (SRIA)(3) and the head of the Order in Scotland (SRIS)(4) recognizing a General Thomas J. Shryock as head of the Order in the United States.(5) Colleges prior to 1874 were formed from or started by the "Society" of Fratres(6) in London. After that time a High Council granted College warrants and established Provinces, seemingly without any standard procedures for doing so. Much was done very casually, an individual being made a Magus and given jurisdiction over a Province and warranted to form Colleges. Records show that these warrants were just that, only warrants, a piece of paper, and in some instances no Colleges were actually constituted, and in other instances some Colleges had members but recorded no activity and eventually had their warrants revoked.



By 1867, however, there emerged a group of Rosicrucian Fratres in London who referred to themselves as "The Society", and formally called themselves "The Rosicrucian Society of England". Seven years later they constituted themselves as the Metropolitan College. They had a presiding officer called Master General. Subsequently in 1874 this College created a High Council doing away with the office of Master General, creating in its stead the office of Supreme Magus, adding in 1891 the office of Celebrant, whose office was to conduct the meetings of the Society.



This history is being described to establish and impress upon us that our roots as Canadian Rosicrucians go back to our Fratres in England and Scotland. The High Council in England according to record was constituted on April 24, 1874, and its daughter College, the East of Scotland College, which held its inaugural meeting on October 24, 1873, before the High Council in England was formally constituted, came under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan College of England. In 1876, two years after the High Council in England was constituted, the Societas Rosicruciana in Scotia became independent of the English Society, and the first charter issued by the newly created High Council in Scotia was for a North American College, the Illinois College, warranted in May, 1878. The College is now defunct. Subsequent warrants were given for Colleges in Pennsylvania (December 28, 1879) and New York (April 18, 1880), both Colleges now also defunct. The earliest warrant for a College in North America which is still active and under warrant was granted to Alfred F. Chapman for Massachusetts (May 4, 1880).(7)





The Rosy Cross in Canada



In 1871 Prince Rhodocanakis of Greece was made a member of the Rosicrucian Society of England and empowered to establish the Order in Greece. He never did manage to constitute a College in Greece. More importantly for the history of Masonic Rosicrucianism in Canada, he nominated a Canadian, Colonel MacLeod Moore, as Honorary Member of the Supreme Council and granted him a warrant to establish a Supreme Council in Canada, which Colonel Moore did.



The Rosicrucian Society in Canada at that time was acknowledged to be supreme and independent, organized by charter from Prince Rhodocanakis, who himself was a 33o Scottish Rite Mason and IXo Supreme Magus of the Rosicrucian Society. The Canadian charter was dated the 19th of September 1876. By 1880 there was one active Canadian Provincial College at the village of Maitland, Ontario, which became known as Dominion College No. 1, constituted March 16, 1877 with its High Council named the following September.



Soon after, in 1879, another College was constituted in Orillia, known as the Ontario College, not to be confused with our present Ontario College, SRICF. This Ontario College was a College of the Rosicrucian Society in Canada, independent of the Societies in England, Scotland and the United States. Later a College appeared in Peterborough, Ontario, called the MacLeod Moore College. It appears not to have survived for long, and may never have received a charter. The Society was active in Canada only for 10 years and we have no records of its activities, all records having been lost in a fire at the La Prairie Barracks in Quebec. What we do know about the early existence of the Society in Canada is that the Dominion College, meeting in Maitland, had 15 members; the Ontario College in Orillia had 20 members; and the MacLeod Moore College in Peterborough had 10 members.



Moore, in 1880, writes to Alfred Pike, a Mason living in the United States, suggesting the possibility of establishing a Society in the United States through his, Colonel Moore's auspices. In the correspondence, he suggests setting up the Society in the United States along the lines of jurisdiction governing the Scottish Rite, namely, that the United States could be an independent Society. The letter mentions, to quote, that "every supreme and independent Society governs the whole nation for which its charter gives its authority".(8) He goes on to make an exception for the United States, which may embrace two jurisdictions, Northern and Southern, along the lines of the Scottish Rite.



Moore was willing to grant Pike of the United States a charter acknowledging Pike and any two others named by him to constitute the supreme and independent College of the Rosicrucian Society of the United States. In order to legitimize the establishment of this new College Moore was willing to create Pike and any two others named by him Honorary IXo of the High Council of the Rosicrucian Society in Canada. Furthermore, Moore, very much dissatisfied with the ritual of the Order, was willing to give Pike the right to alter, add to, change or abolish the rituals as he might see fit.(9)



Eventually Pike wrote a set of laws for his High Council regulating the Rosicrucian Society of the United States of America.(10) In his regulations he proclaims the High Council of the Rosicrucian Society in the United States as a Society of the Brethren of the Rosy Cross independent and created upon its own foundation. Of course we know what happened to the Order in the United States. It flourished, while the Order in Canada ceased to be active and lost its status as an independent Society on its own foundation. The latest date showing the Canadian Society of Rosicrucians still active for which there are any records is May 17, 1886.(11) We have no records of any activity of any College in Canada in the late nineteenth century after 1886.





The Ontario College



Ironically, Canadians were originally responsible for encouraging and helping to establish the Masonic Rosicrucian Society in the United States and by some quirk of history the Ontario College is now under the jurisdiction of the Society that Canadians helped found. In 1936 William C. White, an Archdeacon of the Anglican Church in Canada and later a Bishop, was consecrated the first Chief Adept of the present Ontario College by the Supreme Magus of the SRICF, M.W. Frater Frederick W. Hamilton. The Ontario College, SRICF, was officially chartered on May 15, 1937.



The Ordinances of the Ontario College, published in 1936, lists its officers, the By-Laws of the Ontario College, as well as listing all other Colleges of the Society Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis and their dates of constitution. In that publication the Ontario College is listed under dispensation, October 20, 1936.



The first officers of the Ontario College, published in the Ordinances, were Chief Adept, R.W. Frater William C. White;(12) Celebrant, R.W. Frater J. Austin Evans; Suffragan, R.W. Frater W.J. Dunlop; Treasurer, V.W. Frater Charles F. Brookes;(13) Secretary, V.W. Frater Colin C. Rous;(14) First Ancient, V.W. Frater Frank A. Copus; Second Ancient, V.W. Frater W. Harvey McNairn; Third Ancient, V.W. Frater G.F. Kingston; Fourth Ancient, V.W. Frater A.E. MacGregor; Conductor of Novices, V.W. Frater John Ness; Organist, V.W. Frater Lewis K. Redman; Librarian, V.W. Frater N.W.J. Haydon.(15)



There were twenty-one charter members(16) of the Ontario College, SRICF, the last one, V.W. Frater E.H. Monroe, having died May 15, 1983.(17) The Register to date contains the signatures and Mottos of 63 Fratres. It is interesting to note that in the 50 years since the Ontario College first received its charter

from the Society in the United States only 63 members have been received into the College. This would seem appropriate given the restricted purpose of the Society.



Four of the 21 charter members resided outside Toronto. Frank Copus was from Stratford; McNairn from Windsor; and Shepley from Dundas. Edwin H. D. Hall, from Peterborough, was made an honorary member. At present we have 17 members, two of them residing outside Ontario: V.W. Frater Dr. M.A. Wozny in Calgary, Alberta, and V.W. Frater Dr. Paul F. Thomas in Victoria, British Columbia.

The Frater Hall who was made an honorary charter member of the Ontario College I suspect is the same E.H.D. Hall who was listed as a member of the Canadian High Council in 1885 before its demise. He must have been well on in years when he was made an honorary member of the Ontario College. In the 1885 record of the Canadian High Council of the Society,(18) he is listed as Precentor or Fifth Ancient and honorary ninth grade.(19) The Society in Canada at the time followed the custom of not have more than three active Magi of the ninth grade at any one time. In 1970, Manly P. Hall, the well known American Rosicrucian scholar, was elevated to an honorary 8o and appointed a member At Large of the Supreme Council, SRICF. His father was the same Edwin H.D. Hall of Peterborough who was made an honorary member of the Ontario College.



The College records show that some of the Fratres affiliated with the Ontario College from the Nova Scotia College in Halifax. The Nova Scotia College received its charter in 1936, one year earlier than the charter for the Ontario College.(20) The Nova Scotia College was chartered on July 13, 1936 and the Ontario College was chartered on May 15, 1937. The Nova Scotia College had its charter revoked November 21, 1951.(21) Among the Fratres from the Nova Scotia College who affiliated with the Ontario College was R.G. Meekren, a well known Masonic scholar. Other affiliates were Canon S.H. Middleton, A.J.B. Milborne, F.J. Burd and Reginald Harris. The date of their affiliation is noted on the Register as October 23, 1951, which is just one month before the charter of the Nova Scotia College was revoked.



Since 1937 there have been only four Chief Adepts of the College, each having been appointed and elevated to the IXo by the Supreme Magus of the High Council of the Society in the United States. The first Chief Adept, as I have already mentioned, was William C. White; his successor was J.Austin Evans.(22) Frater White served as Chief Adept from 1937 to 1949 and Frater Evans from 1949 to 1967. R.W. Frater Jim Campbell, IXo, succeeded Dr. Evans as Chief Adept of the Ontario College, becoming the third Chief Adept of the College and serving from 1967 to 1986. Dr. Campbell, who happily is here with us tonight, is listed as number 45 on the Register of the College and has been a member of the Ontario College since 1959. He was appointed to High Council, SRICF, as Medallist in 1971 and in 1983 M.W. Frater Henry Emerson, Supreme Magus, SRICF, appointed Frater Campbell First Ancient of the High Council in North America.



The Ontario College has had three secretaries since its beginning. The first secretary was Colin C. Rous who held that office for 30 years from 1937 to 1967. Evidently, he was a keen Rosicrucian scholar. An article written by Rous, entitled "The Author and Object of the Fama", was published in the July 1953 issue of The Rosicrucian Fama. In 1971 Rous was appointed to the High Council, SRICF, as Sixth Ancient. Rous was succeeded by Harry Wilson whose failing eyesight led to his resignation as secretary in 1975. Maarten van Wamelen, who was received into the College in 1964, was elected Secretary of the College following Frater Wilson's resignation and remains in that office to date. In 1979, Frater Wilson was made Secretary Emeritus of the Ontario College in appreciation for his service to the College.



The Celebrant of the College holds an important office. It is his duty to preside at the opening and closing of Convocations. The first one to hold this office in the Ontario College was Dr. J. Austin Evans who held the office of Celebrant until being appointed Chief Adept of the College in 1949. The next Celebrant was Frater G. Brett, followed by Eric Horwood who held that office until his death in 1984.(23) He was succeeded as Celebrant by Dr. Claude Brodeur. Frater Brodeur, who had been a member of the College since 1975, succeeded Frater Horwood in the office of Celebrant until his appointment as Chief Adept of the Ontario College in 1986. The present Celebrant is V.W. Frater Don Scott, who was received into the College in 1979, served as Treasurer for a while and was elevated to the VIIIo by the High Council of North America subsequent to his election as Celebrant of the College.

Several members of the College have served as Grand Masters of the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario, among them two charter members, Frater W.C. White and Frater W.J. Dunlop, and more recently, in 1983, Frater Ronald E. Groshaw. Dr. J. Austin Evans, the second Chief Adept of the College, and the present Secretary of the College, Frater Maarten van Wamelen, served Masonry as Ill. Grand Masters of the Grand Council of Royal and Select Masters of Ontario in 1930 and 1981 respectively.



Several members of the College have also served in public office with distinction. Again, among the charter members, Frater White was elected a Bishop of the Anglican Church in Canada, and Frater Dunlop was elected a member of the Ontario Parliament and appointed Minister of Education for the Province of Ontario. Frater A. Charles Sankey has also had the distinction of being the first Chancellor of Brock University in St. Catherines, Ontario.



Because of the special research interests of the Fratres of our College, it is worth noting that Dunlop was also at one time honorary chairman of the Toronto Society for Masonic Research, of which our Frater Maarten van Wamelen is the Secretary. To commemorate his dedication both to Masonry and to education, and as a memorial to his name, University Lodge No. 496 established in 1985 the William J. Dunlop Memorial Scholarship Award for students attending Woodsworth College, University of Toronto, and to this date two Dunlop scholarships have been awarded. Frater N.W.J. Haydon, also a charter member, No. 12 on the Register, was for many years Librarian of the Grand Lodge Library for the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. He also figured prominently in the Society for Masonic Research.  The present Chief Adept of the College is also a charter member of the Heritage Lodge No. 730, the research Lodge of the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario.



In Canada, we have two Masonic Rosicrucian Societies under different jursidictions, the SRICF and the SRIA. The two Societies now officially recognize each other and are working in amity. This was not always the situation. For eight years, from 1970 to 1978, the SRIA did not formally recognize the SRICF. This was due to a difference about the conferring of grades. Recently this has changed and Fratres of both Orders are encouraged to attend the meetings of their confreres. On October 18, 1978, the High Council of SRIA at their Convocation passed a resolution giving re-recognition to SRICF. Then, on June 30, 1981, M.W. Frater Norman C. Stamford, Supreme Magus of the SRIA (1979-1982), on his visit to the Toronto College, SRIA, conferred on R.W. Frater Campbell, then Chief Adept of the Ontario College, SRICF, the grade of Magus, Honoris Causa, 9o, SRIA. In 1987 the Supreme Magus of SRICF, M.W. Frater Dr. William G. Peacher, was specially invited by the Supreme Magus of SRIA, M.W. Frater Alan G. Davies, IXo, to attend as a guest of honour the festivities planned by the High Council, SRIA, in London, England on the occasion of the 120th anniversary of that Society. All Fratres of SRICF were invited to attend.



From time to time there has been discussion about giving jurisdiction to the Ontario College to establish a Societas Rosicruciana in Canadencia (SRIC). The matter was raised, according to records on hand, as recently as 1971. Some members of the High Council, SRICF, are in favor of this move. However, there has been no desire on the part of the Ontario College to seriously consider this undertaking. It is unlikely that enough members could be found to charter other Colleges, let alone to finance a High Council and to recruit sufficient members willing to serve as it officers. Consider, for example, that in 1982, after 102 years of SRICF in North America, the Society could report that there were only 880 members and 21 Colleges, not too bad considering that in 1935 records show only 5 Colleges with a collective membership of 115. However, we must remind ourselves that the United States has a greater population, and many more Freemasons to draw from than we have here in Canada. Moreover, because of the research nature of our fraternity, we would need a greater number of communities with a greater concentration of Universities than we have at present in Canada. For these reasons, a Societas Rosicruciana in Canadencia does not at the moment seem a very likely nor desireable prospect.



The number of members in the Ontario College for the past 50 years of its existence has been as few as 15 and as many as 22, averaging about 17 or 18. The College has necessarily been very selective in its membership. The very nature of the Society in general and the purposes of this College in particular necessitate restricting the number of members to give as many as possible an opportunity to present papers and to participate in the discussions following the reading of a paper. These discussions tend to be lively and to generate much thoughtful and open expression of ideas.



The Society has three Orders, each consisting of several grades with a separate degree. The First Order consists of four grades, namely, Zelator, Theoricus, Practicus and Philosophus. The Second Order consists of grades five to seven: Adeptus Junior, Adeptus Major and Adeptus Exemptus. The Third Order consists of grades eight and nine: Magister Templi and Magus. It has not been the tradition in the Ontario College to perform the ritual. The College has more the character of a research body. I have been unable to find any College records which would indicate that this was a decision reached by the Fratres in a formal way. Only on one occasion is it recorded that the ritual was performed in full. This was done by Bishop White, the first Chief Adept of the College in 1937.



It might be of some interest to consider the character of the Ontario College as reflected in the activity of its members. As I have already suggested the presentation of research papers on Masonic Rosicrucianism and related subjects is the primary concern of the College, rather than the performance of ritual. There is a common concern evident in the papers, the theme being generally science, religion and education. This is not surprising since the College has had among its members many representatives from the religious, scientific and educational communities. A few papers have dealt with contemporary moral issues and some with issues peculiar to Freemasonry and Rosicrucian history and philosophy. Preferment for advancement in the Order has been largely based on one's readiness to prepare papers for presentation at convocations of the College. A list of convocation papers from 1961 to 1987, on file in the records of the College, has been prepared by Frater van Wamelen and published by Frater Brodeur.



From records of the College that have been entrusted to my care I can report that about the year 1967 careful and serious thought was being given to clarifying the purposes of the Order. I would like to share the results of my researches with you. It was obvious at the time that the purposes of the Order should be those of Masonry in general. However, there was an opinion that the Order should in particular maintain and foster a spirit of fellowship among its Fratres; that the Fratres should present papers of philosophical interest, covering a very wide range of topics, have open and penetrating discussion of the subjects presented, and publish papers in the Rosicrucian Fama. A look at the listing of papers presented from 1961 to 1987, and a cursory reading of the minutes for this same period would certainly suggest that these objectives were systematically implemented and have been sustained to date, perhaps with the exception of being able to have papers published in the Rosicrucian Fama.



In recent years the members of the College have given considerable attention to the question of membership, which finally resolved itself by serious reflection and discussion about the purposes of the Society in general, and the Ontario College in particular. At the request of the Chief Adept of the College and with the concurrence of its officers and members, the Secretary of the College, R.W. Frater Maarten van Wamelen, VIIIo, prepared a paper which was read at the Convocation of the College held on October 17, 1984 on the objects of the Societas Rosicruciana. The paper and discussion led to several observations which are worth noting here for an understanding of the uniqueness of this particular College. Much of this uniqueness, of course, is a mark of the gentle direction given by the Chief Adepts of the College, in particular Dr. Jim Campbell, and the two Secretaries of the College, Harry Wilson, and Maarten van Wamelen.



In correspondence dated August 28, 1984, Frater Campbell encourages Frater van Wamelen to read his paper at the next Convocation of the College. For him, Frater van Wamelen had prepared "a valuable and important paper, which should provide much food for thought and active discussion." He writes to Frater van Wamelen: "I wish to congratulate you and express my sincere thanks for (your) fine contribution to our work in this field of Masonic Rosicrucianism. It (will) give us a guide to the nature of the art and how we can best promote it."



However, we must not conclude from a reading of Frater van Wamelen's paper that all members of the College were in agreement with all its ideas. To generate consensus, of course, has never been the aim of the members of the College. Frater Campbell summarized his reaction to the paper in this way, and I think it best captures the spirit of this particular College:



Fascinating as are the thoughts and influences that brought about the formation and ideas of Rosicrucianism, I do not believe that we should be confined in our thoughts and explorations to the seventeenth century. It would appear that the Divine influences were active and pervasive at that time in a peculiarly potent way. I do not believe, however, that these influences ceased at that moment. I believe that these Divine influences have been continuously and fruitfully active in mankind since then to the present and that they will continue into the future.



I believe,therefore, that we have a right and indeed an obligation to bring our thoughts and knowledge into the present day and to make these thoughts as potent and competent as we are able through the use of all available and proper means. Nor do I agree that there should be a limitation to the scope or depth of enquiry. In my view, the nature, scholarship and validity of the enquiry are of great importance.



It seems on cursory examination that the Objects of Masonic Rosicrucianism are somewhat confining as compared to those of Rosicrucianism in general.

This, however, is a matter of interpretation, which can vary. Masonry claims to be a progressive science and therefore one feels that limitation is not one of the purposes of the Objectives (of the SRICF).

It also appears...that we should not allow our penchant for mysticism and the occult to interfere with the progression of knowledge and ideas. The controversy between Robert Fludd and Johannes Kepler is an example of this.



I am therefore of the opinion that in our work in the Ontario College, we should be free to make it as wide as is appropriate and that we should strive to make it as competent and powerful as possible.



Fratres, I leave you with these thoughts about our past and our present with the hope that they will cause you to feel glad to be here and to be part of such a fraternity as we have in this unique Society of fellow Masons. I hope you feel proud enough of the legacy and the challenge bequeathed to us to want to advance the causes which the Order espouses, namely, mutual aid and encouragement in working out the great problems of life, the advancement of science, the propagation of knowledge, and the diffusion on earth of peace, goodwill toward men and glory to God.

_________

*A paper read at the 116th Covocation of the Ontario College on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of its founding.















THE ROSICRUCIANISM OF THOMAS TROWARD

AND HIS INFLUENCE ON TWENTIETH CENTURY

PSYCHOLOGY, PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION *





Several twentieth century movements seem to have been influenced by Rosicrucian ideas of mind, body and spirit.  These movements were largely religious in nature and offshoots of different Christian denominations, like the New Thought Movement, the Unity Church of Christianity and Norman Vincent Peale's Christianity of positive thinking.



One writer especially typifies these early twentieth-century movements, namely Thomas Troward.((24)) Troward seems to be the most systematic thinker to have written about this New Thought philosophy and psychology.  He expresses himself succinctly and writes about metaphysical subjects not in an abstract and mystical manner, but practically and grounding his thinking in the scientific ideas of his day.



Troward's first and best known book was a collection of talks he delivered in Scotland and England under the title of Edinburgh Lectures On Mental Science.  I have been unable, through my researches, to establish the date and place of his first talk.  The earliest mention of his lectures I have been so far able to find is in The Times Index for October 27, 1916.  References suggest that the talks were given much earlier than that date. 



First, allow me to establish Troward's connection with the new religious movements of the time.  They were called New Thought.  These new movements, and Troward's connection with them, are mentioned in the Encyclopedia Americana (Volume 20, 1984 edition), under "New Thought." His name is mentioned among several early writers on the subject of New Thought, the others being Ella Wheeler Wilcox, Edwin Markham, Prentice Mulford, Ralph Waldo Trine,all in the United States, and Thomas Troward is mentioned as a representative of New Thought in England.



Next, I'ld like to present evidence from Troward's writings themselves demonstrating his connection with Rosicrucianism.  In his Edinburgh Lectures On Mental Science, Troward ends his lectures with the following words, to quote:



The Question of the specific lines on which the individual may be most perfectly trained into such recognition of his true relation to the All-embracing Spirit of Life is therefore of supreme importance, but it is also of such magnitude that even to briefly sketch its broad outlines would require a volume to itself, and I will therefore not attempt to enter upon it here, my present purpose being only to offer some hints of the principles underlying that wonderful three-fold unity of Body, Soul, and Spirit which we all know ourselves to be.



We are as yet only at the commencement of the path which leads to the realization of this unity in the full development of all its powers, but others have trodden the way before us, from whose experiences we may learn; and not least among these was the illustrious founder of the Most Christian Fraternity of the Rosicrucians.  This master-mind, setting out in his youth with the intention of going to Jerusalem, changed the order of his journey and first sojourned for three years in the symbolical city of Damcar, in the mystical country of Arabia, then for about a year in the mystical country of Egypt, and then for two years in the mystical country of Fez.  Then, having during these six years learned all that was to be acquired in those countries, he returned to his native land of Germany, where, on the basis of the knowledge he had thus gained, he founded the Fraternity R.C., for hose instruction he wrote the mystical books M. and T.  Then, when he realized that his work in its present stage was accomplished, he of his own free will laid aside the physical body, not, it is recorded, by decay, or disease, or ordinary death, but by the express direction of the Spirit of Life, summing up all his knowledge in the words, "Jesus mihi omnia." And now his followers await the coming of "the Artist Elias," who shall bring the Magnum Opus to its completion.



"Let him that readeth understand."



This quote would seem to indicate quite openly that Troward considered his thinking to be a contemporary representation of Rosicrucian philosophy.



In the 1921 Christmas Supplement to The Bookman (Volume 61-62, containing the issues of The Bookman from October, 1921 to March, 1922), a photograph of Thomas Troward appears on page 121, with the following caption: "The Late Mr. T. Troward, a new and uniform edition of whose works in mental science Messrs. Philpot Ltd. are publishing."  It is from that edition that I have quoted Troward's reference to Rosicrucianism.



My own copy of the Edinburgh Lectures On Mental Science gives no date of publication.  The only reviews of the book I could find were published in 1915, one on the 3rd of March in The Outlook, and the other on the 3rd of June in the Boston Transcript.  The forward in my copy of the book, signed by Troward himself, is dated March, 1904.  Presumably, the lectures were delivered before 1904 and published in a first printing much before the 1915 review in the The Outlook and the Boston Transcript.  Originally, then, the lectures were delivered in Edinburgh, and apparently these lectures became the first in a series of lectures on philosophy, psychology and religion.  The title of the book mentioned in the Boston Transcript review is in fact the Edinburgh Lectures On Mental Science (Edinburgh Lecture Series).

But, remember, the reviews mention that the publisher were providing later editions of his works, editions that were revised and enlarged.  I do not know how much they were revised and enlarged, for I have been unable to find copies of the originals.



The Edinburgh Lectures are described in the Boston Transcript a course of lectures given by the author in Edinburgh.  The review is a short synopsis of what's in the book.  It's about the relation between personal and universal mind, the connection being demonstrated, according to the review, with great force of logic, arguing that subjective mind is universal.  Moreover, Troward is said to argue that this subjective mind is the same one at work throughout the universe.  This, indeed, does seem to be an important metaphysical principle for Troward, and it also happens to be a principal tenet of Rosicrucianism. 



This review further continues to elaborate the main points of Troward's Edinburgh Lectures, that, in a manner of speaking, our individual subjective mind, if technically speaking we can call it our mind, is more strictly speaking our share in the universal mind; that this subjective mind may be imagined as a fountain of perpetual life which is continually renovating the body by building in strong and healthy material; and that this subjective mind acts only under suggestions coming from the objective mind.  Moreover, the kind of suggestion impressed upon it is amenable to control by the will.



The review published in The Outlook, in that same year, 1915 (three months before the Boston Transcript review) described Troward's lectures as likely to appeal to anyone "trying to cross the great divide between the medieval and the modern conception of God."



About Troward himself I have been able to learn very little.  I have found two references to his death and two references connecting him with the New Thought movement.  In a review of The Law and the Word, which appeared in the Book Review Digest in 1917 (page 565), the reviewer wrote: "the author, who died in 1916, was one of the leading exponents of New Thought."  



The other reference about Troward's place in the New Thought movement appeared in a review of same book, The Law and the Word, appearing in The Times Literary Supplement of London on September 16, 1917.  Here he is identified as the late Mr. Troward, a Divisional Judge in the Punjab.  The reviewer adds that Troward's approach to Christianity is from "a fresh avenue" and that his book "may help those whose religious attitude is represented by such a body as the International New Thought Alliance, of which Mr. Troward was the first vice-president."   This clearly connects Troward with the New Thought movement in North America.  Troward must have had a wide audience in North America, because his books were reviewed in many American literary magazines of the day.

Troward's book, The Law and the Word, is a collection of his essays.  Paul Derrick, who appears to have been a close friend, wrote an appreciative forward.  My copy has a copyright date of 1917 and signed as the twenty-fourth printing of the lectures.  The original publication must have been long before 1917 and somewhat after the Edinburgh lectures, which would suggest these particular lectures were first published sometime after 1904 and before 1917. 



The review of The Law and the Word, published in 1917 in The Times Literary Supplement of London, gives the clearest and most comprehensive description of Troward's philosophy.  This particular review, more than any other, seems to reveal the Rosicrucian character of Troward's philosophy.  The review acknowledge that Troward has based his philosophy on the principle of a "Universal Subconscious mind," and that man's subconsciousness is no more nor less than universal and infinite God-consciousness, "from which man was created and is maintained, and of which all physical, mental, and spiritual manifestation is a form of expression." 



The reviewer then mentions an important idea occurring in The Law and the Word, in the chapter on psychic experience, namely the idea of an ether pervading all space and all substance, which idea should help us to see that many things popularly called supernatural are to be attributed to the action of known laws working under unknown conditions.  This kind of thinking puts a Rosicrucian stamp on the new religious thinking called New Thought.  This makes New Thought more metaphysical and mystical in nature than Christian and religious.  Furthermore, this kind of thinking was not restricted to just a handful of people.  Apparently Troward had a rather wide following at the time.



Interestingly, in this same issue of The Times Literary Supplement, there is a review of a book entitled Christian Science and the Ordinary Man by Walter S. Harris.  The book is described as a discussion of some of the teachings of Mary Baker Eddy, discoverer and founder of Christian Science.  Of course, we now know that Mary Baker Eddy's claim to be the founder of Christian Science is unquestionable.  But it is indeed certain that she was not the discoverer of the idea of Christian Science, nor were she and her disciples the only ones teaching the ideas embodied in Christian Science doctrine.  The distinction of discoverer of those ideas seems to belong to Quimby, ideas

subsequently, parallel with the growth of the Christian Science Church, enshrined in the New Thought movement.  Among them was Thomas Troward.



In that same issue of The London Times Literary Supplement is another review, one announcing the publication of a book by Horatio W. Dresser, called a Handbook of the New Thought.  Dresser is the one who edited and published Quimby's papers, arguing that Quimby, not Mary Baker Eddy, first discovered and taught the ideas germane to Christian Science.  This handbook was written apparently as a manual for those who wish to know the origin, history, purpose and method of the so-called New Thought movement.  To quote:



The 'old' thought against which the 'new' reacts is any form of authority, whether medical or ecclesiastical, in so far as physicians and churches keep people in subjection to

creeds.  It is in particular a protest against materialism in all its forms.((25))



The editions of Troward's books which were reviewed in the English and American literary magazines and newspapers of the early twentieth century were always advertised as revised and enlarged editions.  These revised and enlarged editions seem to have enjoyed a popularity just around the time World War I ended, a time unlike any other in Europe, a time which seemed to have tried the religious faith of many people, people who perhaps wondered how a God could have allowed such widespread inhumanity among mankind.  It was also described as a time of reconstruction. 



There appears to have been a resurgence of interest in the humanistic study of ancient Greece.  Much was being written about the newest advances in medicine, especially around the idea of "psycho-neurosis," ideas which owed much to knowledge gained from treating soldiers who had survived the dreadful experiences of man's brutality to his fellow man in battle.  Metaphysically, it would seem to be accurate to say that there was a general upset in mankind's conception of reality.  Was a unified conception of reality the correct one, or was the correct conception a pluralistic one?  These were the issues being discussed in 1917 in The Times Literary Supplement of London.



May Sinclair, in her book The Quest of Reality, reviewed in the September 16, 1917 issue of The Times Literary Supplement of London, made this observation:



The doctrine of the One has been worked so hard and so incessantly, and with such passionate variance among its adherents as to the nature of their `One,' that the reaction against it was bound to set in, and the tendency of modern metaphysical thought is in favour of the Two or the Many. ((26))



The question of Idealistic Monism versus Idealistic Pluralism seems to have divided the early Greek philosophers into two camps. It is problem central to Eastern philosophy.  How are we to test the question, a priori, or from our experience, a posteriori?  Sinclair continues her analysis of the dilemma by hoping that no reasonable person would demand certainty at this point in the evolution of human thought, and by hoping that all men could accept the fact that the utmost we are entitled to demand is a certain balance of probabilities. ((27))



The review continues to remind us that the quest for an Ultimate Reality is as much a necessity of thought for the Monist as it is a passion of the soul for the Mystic.  In the words of the reviewer, "the saints of Mysticism are poets, and its counterpart in Philosophy is Spiritual Monism."   In the words of Mary Sinclair, the author of The Quest of Reality



Religion that begins in the fear of the supernatural and ends in the consuming love of it is the historic witness to the passion for unity common to the Monists and the Mystics.



The New Mysticism, like the New Thought, is alien to forms of Mysticism and religious worship that are ascetic at one extreme and sensuous and erotic at the other.  We are advised to get rid of all magical thinking that gives rise to Mystery.  Yet, at the same time we are urged to keep a mind open to the possibility of "occult powers of the human individual" with their disputable results.  Too much that is called mysticism is simply a pathological form of "dissociation", and the mention of the "unconscious" and the "subconscious" is a lapse into the primitive and the savage, according to Sinclair. 



The new mysticism is to be robust and joyous, and reconciled to the world, like Rabindranath Tagore in his "Gitanjali".  She agrees with Tagore that the destiny of the East is to "spiritualize the West."  Eastern mysticism is to preferred to Western Mysticism, and especially Christian Mysticism which seems pledged to Dualism.  Perhaps, the meeting of East and West is to be found in the Christian Humanism following upon the heels of World War I, a humanism which some Popes denounced.  More likely, what some people were yearning for at that time is being expressed presently in the Christian movement of Creation Theology, being promulgated by the American Dominican priest Matthew Fox and the Applewood Centre here in Toronto.



In 1910, Troward delivered a series of twelve lectures in London, subsequently published in a small volume as The Dore Lectures on Mental Science.  Again, this information comes from a review which appeared in the Boston Transcript on page 22 of the June 30th, 1915 issue.  The Dore lectures were considered part of the Edinburgh lecture series, but not identical to the lectures on mental science given in Edinburgh.  The reviewer notes that the lectures seem to have a certain progressive development of thought.  In spite of any differences between the Edinburgh and the Dore lectures, one theme seems to run throughout, to quote:



though the laws of the universe can never be broken, they can be made to work under special conditions which will produce results that could not be produced under the conditions spontaneously provided by nature.



Again, my edition of the Dore Lectures claims to be the twenty-fifth printing and carries a copyright and publication date of September 1909.  It's most unlikely that the lectures were published before they were delivered, so they must have been delivered after 1904 and before 1909.



What is this New Thought movement, with which Troward was associated?  According to The New Encyclopaedia Britannica (Volume 13, 1984, pp 14-16), the New Thought movement is "a mind healing movement based on religious and metaphysical presuppositions concerning the nature of reality," originating in the United States in the nineteenth century and branching out into a great variety of New Thought groups.  The Encyclopedia Americana describes it as "a philosophical and mental therapeutics" movement begun in the mid-nineteenth century.  It became a popular religious movement with an extensive literature and with churches and centres throughout the world. 



The New Thought movement has been described as "the religion of healthy-mindedness" or "the mind-cure movement."  Many considered themselves to be Christians, but this reference became more ambiguous in the mid-twentieth century.  It has been described as an individualistic, nonliturgical religion with emphasis on the power of constructive thinking. ((28))  An example fitting this description would be the Unity Church of Christianity (There is one such Church here in Toronto on Eglinton Avenue, just east of Avenue Road).



The earliest advocate of New Thought in North America is said to be Phineas Parkhurst Quimby of Belfast and Portland, Maine, whose life spanned 62 years from 1802 to 1866. This raises the question for me whether New Thought had its origin in England or in North America.  At least, we can assuredly claim that it first became institutionalized as a movement in North America.





Quimby was considered one of the most famous hypnotists of his day, believing and teaching the idea that illness is a matter of the mind.  Accordingly, then, healing must make use of mental and spiritual methods.  One of Quimby's most famous patients, by the way, was Mary Baker Eddy, who, as we have already noted, was the founder of the Christian Science Church.

In 1904, thirty-eight years after the death of Quimby, the first New Thought Congress was convened, followed by the New Thought Alliance in 1908, then the International New Thought Alliance in 1914.  In the United States there were many who joined the Alliance, like the Unity School of Christianity founded by the Fillmore's and the Church of Religious Science founded by Ernest Holmes.



These events were happening in North America at a time when, judging from his publications, Troward was evidently advancing his own ideas similar to American New Thought teachings, ideas about the relationship of body and mind to spirit.  I have found no evidence that Troward knew about the work of Quimby, or for that matter, that he knew of the existence of any other American New Thought writer at the time that he started lecturing. 



Allow me to list for you a variety of ideas that seem to have been officially publicized as characteristic of the New Thought Alliance.  The New Thought principles mentioned in The New Encyclopedia Britannica are:



(1) ideas are more real than matter, suggesting that the New Thought Movement may be a kind of neo-Platonism;



(2) the material realm is one of effects whose causes are spiritual and whose purpose is divine, which suggests a Swedenborgian influence;



(3) truth is a matter of continuing revelation; there is no final truth and no one person or group has the final answers;



(4) another position put forward by the Alliance, is not to place the movement in opposition to medical science, as Christian Science does, but to encourage its members to be positive and optimistic about life and its outcome.



In 1916, the following statement was published regarding the purpose and principles of the New Thought Alliance, namely, to teach the Infinitude of the Supreme One; the Divinity of Man and his Infinite Possibilities through the creative power of constructive thinking and obedience to the voice of the indwelling Presence which is our source of Inspiration, Power, Health

and Prosperity. ((29)) A revision of the purpose and principles of the New Thought Alliance was published in the 1950's with special emphasis on the immanence of God, the divine nature of man, the immediate availability of God's power to man, the spiritual character of the Universe, the idea that sin, human disorder, and human disease are basically matters of incorrect thinking, and that Jesus is to be characterized as a teacher and healer whose kingdom is to be seen as being within a person, and finally a growing tendency to think of material prosperity as the result of adopting and applying New Thought principles in one's thinking and actions.  Interestingly, reference to Jesus was later omitted from the 1954 statement of purposes and principles.((30))



Two other features of the New Thought movement seem worth mentioning.  The New Thought seems to be a kind of monism, encouraging its members to see in all things the Oneness of this world.  Their basic principles are strongly gnostic, namely a rejection of a philosophy of dualism for a philosophy which gives primacy to spirit rather than to matter, and which sees dualism as opposed to the idea of spirit.



Books and magazines began to be published to spread the New Thought philosophy, magazines like New Thought, Unity, Daily Word, Divine Science Monthly, Science of Mind, Religious Science, Crusader, and books written by Ralph Waldo Trine, In Tune with the Infinite (1897), by Orison Swett Marden, Pushing to the Front (1894), by Robert Collier, The Secret of the Ages (1926), by Emmet Fox, Power Through Constructive Thinking (1940) and Sermon on the Mount (1934), by Glen Clark, How to Find Health Through Prayer (1940), by Norman Vincent Peale, The Power of Positive Thinking (1952), and by Thurman Fleet, Concept-Therapy and Rays of the Dawn (1948).



Several groups eventually splintered from the original Unity School of Christianity.  Fillmore, who was a Methodist, founded the Unity Church of Christianity, with headquarters in Unity Village, Missouri.  Frank Rolinson, a Baptist, founded Psychiana.  And the Ballards, Mr. Ballard being a mining engineer, founded the I AM Movement, with headquarters in Chicago, Illinois.



I have shown that there is much in the thinking of Troward and in other writers who identified themselves with the broad terms of the New Thought movement that is consistent with what we know today about the Rosicrucian metaphysics.  One reviewer of the Endinburgh Lectures on Mental Science, ably summed up that philosophy in his review in the March 3, 1915 issue of The Outlook.  He thought the book to be valuable, although he criticized Troward for not being strictly precise in his terms. 



Troward substitutes words like "Spirit" and "Life" for the term "God."  This could be said to be what Jesus thought, when he is quoted to have said "God is Spirit..."  Troward's ideas also seemed to correspond philosophically with the ideas of evolution, namely, "one life in all lives."  And that one life is intelligently building all living bodies, actively carrying on all our subconscious processes of nutrition, growth, repair, and welling up into conscious activities controlled by our will.  The review goes on eloquently to write: in this universal Life or Spirit we each dwell island-like in an ocean, we in God and God in us.  Our challenge is to identify our individual selves in conscious thought, desire and purpose with the Universal Life in the subconscious deeps of our being, trying to think the thought and do the will of the indwelling One so as to realize our Unity with Him and all the good conditioned thereon.  The present trend, notes the reviewer, is to reduce theology to biology, and Troward's Mental Science seems to take this line throughout.



It would seem that Troward's thinking and the Rosicrucian philosophy that it represents continues to find expression today in the continued existence of the New Thought Alliance and its related organizations, chief among them being the Unity Church of Christianity, the Concept-Therapy movement, the Silva Mind Control movement and the Creation Theology movement within the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches. And as Eastern philosophy and psychology gains greater acceptance in the West, the philosophy and metaphysics of Rosicrucianism will perhaps find greater appeal among students looking for a religion and mysticism that harmonizes with the truths and facts of science, for as Teilhard de Chardin demonstrated, in true Rosicrucian fashion, the boundaries between science and religion are fine indeed, if indeed in the final analysis nonexistent.

_________

*A Convocation Paper of the Ontario College, SRICF, October, 1985.













NOTES



1. An example would be the study of Frances A. Yates published as The Rosicrucian Enlightenment by Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, England, 1972. This study was also discussed in one of the convocation papers presented at a meeting of the Fratres of the Ontario College on February 8, 1983 by R.W. Frater Maarten van Wamelen, VIIIo. The title of the paper was "Dame Frances Yates, The Author of The Rosicrucian Enlightenment."

2. Harold V.B. Voorhis, IXo. Masonic Rosicrucian Societies in England, Scotland, Ireland, Greece, Canada & The United States of America. Press of Henry Emerson, New York, 1958 (hereafter referred to as Voorhis, MRS).

3. Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA).

4. Societas Rosicruciana in Scotia (SRIA).

5. Voorhis, MRS, p11.

6. Not yet formally recognized as a society, of course.

7. Voorhis, MRS, p54.

8. Voorhis, MRS, p72.

9. Voorhis, MRS, pp72-73.

10. For a copy of these rules, see Voorhis, MRS, pp80-84.

11. Voorhis, MRS, p85.

12. Bishop White, the first Chief Adept of the Ontario College, was a Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario.

13. Charles F. Brookes, a charter member of the Ontario College died October 10, 1973 at the age of 93. Notes recorded by Dr. Campbell of his remarks for the convocation of the College immediately following Frater Brookes' death mention that Frater Brookes would be remembered for his wide knowledge of a variety of subjects and his kindly and unassuming manner.

14. Frater Colin C. Rous was a member of Ashlar Lodge No. 247, G.R.C.

15. This information may found in a publication entitled The Ordinances of the Ontario College, Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatibus Foederatis, published in Toronto, Ontario, dated 1937. On the inside front cover is a list of the officers of the College. The rest of the publication is devoted to the By-Laws of the Ontario College. On the last page of the publication is a list of the charter members of the College.

16. The Register of Members of the Ontario College, now in the keeping of the Secretary of the Ontario College, SRICF, R.W. Frater Maarten Van Wamelen, lists the charter members, their signature of submission to the Society, the date of their signing and the grade received. The date of charter membership which is recorded in the Register is January 23, 1937. This, of course was before the Charter was granted, so the College was actually under dispensation at that time.

The obligation that all members take upon themselves when signing the Register is worded thus: "I promise upon my word of honor to respect the laws and usages of the Rosicrucian Society and preserve inviolate its secrets and mysteries in the degree I may receive from all who are not entitled to receive the same."

Another entry immediately following the signatures of the charter members reads as follows: "The first twenty-one members of the College whose names appear above being charter members signed this declaration which appears above in the College minute book."

Each who signed the Register upon becoming a charter member was thereby immediately advanced the VIIo (Grade). Their names are herewith listed along with their number in the register, the first one being the Chief Adept, R.W. Frater William C. White. The others are as follows: 2. J. Austin Evans, 3. W. J. Dunlop, 4. Charles F. Brookes, 5. Colin C. Rous, 6. Frank A. Copus, 7. W. Harvey McNairn, 8. G.F. Kingston, 9. A.E. MacGregor, 10. John Ness, 11, Lewis K. Redman, 12. N.W.J. Haydon, 13. R.B. Dargavel, 14. Alexander Robb, 15. E.H. Monroe, 16. Albert J. Brace, 17. Fred G. Shepley, 18. James J. Talman, 19. Charles S. Gulston, 20. W.E. Hopkins, 21. E.H.D. Hall.

The Register also includes the Motto of each Frater of the Order, with the exception of V.W. Frater Albert J. Brace and V.W. Frater R.B. Dargavel, for whom no Mottos are recorded.

17. Frater Monroe was the longest living charter member, having regularly and faithfully attended meetings of the College for over 40 years. He also contributed several convocation papers.

18. See Voorhis, MRS, p70.

19. A Frater who is regularly elevated to the ninth grade is entitled to indicate this by appending to his name the Roman numeral nine followed by the degree symbol thus: IXo, whereas an honorary ninth grade is indicated by the Arabic symbol for nine followed by the degree symbol thus: 9o.

20. Voorhis, MRS, pp41-42

21. Voorhis, MRS, p121

22. Dr. Joseph Austin Evans was born July 28, 1882 in Toronto and died on March 13, 1971. He was the second Chief Adept of the Ontario College, SRICF, serving from 1949 to 1967. He was made Chief Adept on March 3, 1949, being elevated to the IXo. He resigned April 4, 1967 after 18 years in that office. He was appointed to the High Council, SRICF, as Medallist on December 12, 1949 and was Third Ancient of the High Council on passing. Dr. Evans was a Medical Doctor in private practice and also served as Medical Doctor for Imperial Oil. He continued to practise medicine from his office on Avenue Road until the day of his death at the age of 89.

23. Eric Crompton Horwood was born July 3rd, 1900 and died October 23, 1984. He attended University of Toronto Schools and Victoria College, University of Toronto, majoring in Physics and Mathematics. He next enrolled in the School of Practical Science, University of Toronto, graduating with honors in 1925 as a Bachelor in Architecture. In 1932 He was admitted to the Architectural Institute of Canada. He was a member of Lakeshore Lodge No. 645, G.R.C., a 33o Honorary Inspector General of the Scotish Rite, a member of Chapter No. 215. Royal Arch Masons. He was installed as Master of Lakeshore Lodge by M.W. Bro. W.J. Dunlop, Grand Master, in 1939 and was appointed Grand Steward in 1952. He was appointed Honorary member of the Board of General Purposes in 1972 and Honorary Grand Senior Warden in 1974. He held honorary memberships in many Lodges as a result of his work for Grand Lodge as Chairman of an Advisory Committee on Lodge Buildings. He joined the Ontario College, SRICF, April 1, 1949 and received the 7th Grade on October 1950 and on February 19, 1975 he was elected Celebrant of the College and elevated to the 8th Grade by the High Council, SCRIF, in the United States. His Latin motto was "Petite et Dabitus Vobis" - Ask and It Shall Be Given You.

24. Encyclopedia Americana, "New Thought," Vol. 20, 1984 edition, p. 226.

25. The Times Literary Supplement, No. 816 (Sixteenth Year), London, Thursday, September 16, 1917, p. 432

26. idem, p. 424

27. ibid.

28. ibid

29. The New Encyclopedia Brittanica, Volume 20, 1984 edition.

30. ibid.